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BUTLER’S TOURISM LIFE CYCLE MODEL. YOU WILL LEARN: APPLICATION OF THE MODEL TO SPAIN’S COSTA del SOL APPLYING TODAYS TOURIST DESTINATIONS TO THE MODEL. Butler’s Tourism Life Cycle Model. Based on MEDC tourism Life Cycle of a Resort Tourism viewed as a resource 6 Stages Exploration

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butler s tourism life cycle model

BUTLER’S TOURISM LIFE CYCLE MODEL

YOU WILL LEARN:

APPLICATION OF THE MODEL TO SPAIN’S COSTA del SOL

APPLYING TODAYS TOURIST DESTINATIONS TO THE MODEL

butler s tourism life cycle model2
Butler’s Tourism Life Cycle Model
  • Based on MEDC tourism
  • Life Cycle of a Resort
  • Tourism viewed as a resource
  • 6 Stages
    • Exploration
    • Involvement
    • Development
    • Consolidation
    • Stagnation
    • Decline OR Rejuvenation
exploration
Exploration
  • Small number of tourist attracted by culture / natural beauty
  • Limited numbers
  • Few facilities exist
development
Development
  • Large numbers of tourists
  • Control of market moves from locals to external bodies e.g. TNC’s
  • Conflict between residents and tourists
success
Success
  • At this stage mass tourism replaces what was once the original economic function of the settlement.
  • It may appear that the local culture is being diminished by a more international culture
stagnation
Stagnation
  • Tourist numbers plateau
  • Older facilities seen as “second rate”
  • Peak tourist numbers reached
  • Resort no longer fashionable
decline or rejuvenation
Decline OR Rejuvenation
  • Attractiveness continues to decline
  • Visitors lost to other resorts / destinations
  • Resort becomes dependant on day / weekend visitors from limited geographical area
  • Unless efforts made to modernise and rejuvenate resort will continue to decline
case study
Case Study

Spain - Costa del Sol

slide10

Exploration

    • 1960’s only 0.4 million tourists to the Costa del Sol, visiting for the beach holidays
  • Involvement
    • 1970\'s numbers rose to 3 million.
    • Farmland built on, infrastructure improved.
    • Transition from resource based to demand based
  • Development & Consolidation
    • 1980’s numbers rocketed to 7 million (carrying capacity reached)
    • Clubs, bars, restaurants and more hotels were built, leading to environmental degradation.
slide11

Stagnation

    • Late 1980’s area began to stagnate, and was no longer fashionable.
    • Attractive mountainous area blocked by large hotel developments,
    • Beaches dirty from litter left by tourists
    • Polluted from excessive sewage.
    • Strain on resources e.g. water
      • It takes 60 000 gallons to run a luxury hotel for a day.
slide12

Decline OR Rejuvenation??

    • 1990s Costa del Sol began rejuvenation.
    • Beaches tidied &achieved EU Blue Flag
    • VAT cut to 6% to encourage tourists and businesses
    • Tourism began to diversify to eco tourism and heritage tourism.
      • Development of Coto Donana national park to \'Costa Donana’ abandoned
      • Wetland area popular with rare birds
      • Previous development had seen a drop in the water table and the death of 30 000 wild birds form pesticide contamination
slide13
TASK
  • In pairs apply the resorts you have been given to the larger copy of the model.
  • Discuss your reasons for placing the resorts at a stage of the model.
  • Finalise the applied model with a class discussion.
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