Mk.
Download
1 / 55

ANALISIS KETAHANAN EKOSISTEM - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 173 Views
  • Uploaded on

Mk. Analisis Ekosistem. ANALISIS KETAHANAN EKOSISTEM. Diabstraksikan : smno.psdl.pdkl.ppsub.2012/13. BIODIVERSITY & SUSTAINABILITY. Biodiversity. The term “biodiversity” is a contraction of the phrase “biological diversity”.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' ANALISIS KETAHANAN EKOSISTEM' - helene


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

Mk. AnalisisEkosistem

ANALISIS

KETAHANAN

EKOSISTEM

Diabstraksikan: smno.psdl.pdkl.ppsub.2012/13


Biodiversity sustainability
BIODIVERSITY&SUSTAINABILITY


Biodiversity
Biodiversity

  • The term “biodiversity” is a contraction of the phrase “biological diversity”.

  • Biodiversity means the richness and variety of life - of genes, species and ecosystems.


Biodiversity1
Biodiversity

  • Biodiversity maintains the health of the earth and its people.

  • It provides us with food and medicine and contributes to our economy.

  • It tells us a lot about the health of the biosphere.

  • The greater the variety of species, the healthier the biosphere.



Sustainability
Sustainability

  • The ability to maintain ecological processes over long periods of time.

  • Sustainability of an ecosystem is the ability of that ecosystem to maintain its structure and function over time in the face of external stress.


Sustainability1
Sustainability

  • Is strongly linked to ecosystem health.

  • The more sustainable an ecosystem is, the healthier it is because it is able to “deal” with external stress better (i.e. limiting factors).


Biodiversity sustainability1
Biodiversity & Sustainability

  • The biodiversity of an ecosystem contributes to the sustainability of that ecosystem.

  • Higher/more biodiversity = more sustainable

  • Lower/less biodiversity = less sustainable

  • High biodiversity in an ecosystem means that there is a great variety of genes and species in that ecosystem.


Biodiversity & Sustainability

  • A great variety of genes and species means that the ecosystem is better able to carry out natural processes in the face of external stress.

  • Thus, the ecosystem is more sustainable.


Biodiversity and sustainability
Biodiversity and Sustainability

  • The more sustainable an ecosystem is, the better it is for the environment and for people.

  • People use ecosystems as sources of food, medicine and economy.

  • Thus, it is in everyone’s best interest to increase the sustainability of ecosystems.

  • How can we do this?


Contohnya
Contohnya:

  • The greater the variety of genes and species of fish, plants and animals in the Lake Winnipeg ecosystem, the more biodiversity.

  • Higher biodiversity will increase the ecosystem’s sustainability

  • Why is this important?

Walleye

Whitefish

Northern pike


What is ecosystem stability
What is ecosystem stability?

  • The vast majority of natural ecosystems experience regular environmental change, or disturbances.

  • Most ecologists describe ecosystem stability as the ability of an ecosystem to maintain its structure and function over long periods of time and despite disturbances.

  • Ecosystem structure includes physical and geological structures of the landscape, the number and diversity of species present, the population sizes of those species, and the ways in which these populations interact.

  • Ecosystem function refers to processes such as water and nutrient cycling and biomass productivity that the ecosystem provides.

. Sumber: www.aisd.net/aisd/Portals/73/1/a/.../12F%20Ecosystem%20Stability.ppt‎


Resistance and Resilience

  • There are two main components to ecosystem stability: resistance and resilience.

  • An ecosystem displays resistance if keeps its structure and continues normal functions even when environmental conditions change.

  • An ecosystem displays resilience if, following a disturbance, it eventually regains its normal structure and function.

. Sumber: www.aisd.net/aisd/Portals/73/1/a/.../12F%20Ecosystem%20Stability.ppt‎


  • Ecosystems that show a high degree of stability may have different combinations of resistance and resilience.

  • Research has shown that species diversity is often the key to both ecosystem resistance and resilience.

  • An ecosystem rich in biodiversity will likely be more stable than one whose biodiversity islow.

1. InferIf an ecosystem has low biodiversity, is it more or less stable than an ecosystem of high biodiversity?

. Sumber: www.aisd.net/aisd/Portals/73/1/a/.../12F%20Ecosystem%20Stability.ppt‎


How does environmental change affect ecosystem stability
How does environmental change affect ecosystem stability? different combinations of resistance and resilience.

  • Communities respond to environmental change in ways that reflect the responses of the species and populations in the community.

  • Species respond to environmental change in ways that enable them to maintain homeostasis.

  • Populations respond in ways that reflect the success or failure of members of the population to survive and reproduce.

. Sumber: www.aisd.net/aisd/Portals/73/1/a/.../12F%20Ecosystem%20Stability.ppt‎


  • Changing environmental conditions can cause the decline of local biodiversity. If this happens, an ecosystem’s resistance and/or resilience may decline. The end result is that the ecosystem loses stability.

  • Ecosystems that are less stable may not be able to respond to a normal environmental disturbance, which may damage ecosystem structure, ecosystem function, or both.

. Sumber: www.aisd.net/aisd/Portals/73/1/a/.../12F%20Ecosystem%20Stability.ppt‎


How does natural environmental change affect ecosystem stability
How does natural environmental change affect ecosystem stability?

  • Fires, heavy storms, and natural climate change can cause major changes in local populations of plants and animals.

  • A decline in natural biodiversity can make an ecosystem less stable.

2. Apply ConceptsWhat is one example of a local natural environmental change? How did it impact ecosystem stability?

. Sumber: www.aisd.net/aisd/Portals/73/1/a/.../12F%20Ecosystem%20Stability.ppt‎


How does environmental change caused by human actions affect ecosystem stability
How does environmental change caused by human actions affect ecosystem stability?

  • Humans affect ecosystem stability in many ways, including habitat loss, introduction of nonnative species, release of pollution into food webs, and contribution to climate change.

  • Ecosystems are frequently destroyed for agricultural activity and urban development. Clearing patches of habitat can split ecosystems into pieces, a process called habitat fragmentation.

. Sumber: www.aisd.net/aisd/Portals/73/1/a/.../12F%20Ecosystem%20Stability.ppt‎


  • Remaining pieces of habitat become habitat “islands” surrounded by a different habitat. The smaller a habitat island is, the fewer species can live there, and the smaller their populations can be.

  • A keystone species is one that has a strong and/or wide-reaching impact on a community’s stability. If a keystone species declines in number, the ecosystem becomes much less stable.

3. PredictSea otters, a keystone species, eat sea urchins, which in turn eat kelp. In the 1990s, sea otter populations off the coast of Alaska declined because orcas ate large numbers of otters. What effect did this have on the sea otters’ ecosystem?

. Sumber: www.aisd.net/aisd/Portals/73/1/a/.../12F%20Ecosystem%20Stability.ppt‎


  • Humans sometimes introduce organisms into a new habitat, whereit can become invasive and threaten biodiversity and ecosystem structure.

  • An invasive species is a nonnative species that spreads widely in a community. Nonnative species become invasive if their new surroundings lack natural population checks such as predators or competitors.

  • Invasive species usually cause local native biodiversity to decline and therefore affect ecosystem stability.

4. ContrastWhat is the difference between nonnative species and invasive species?

. Sumber: www.aisd.net/aisd/Portals/73/1/a/.../12F%20Ecosystem%20Stability.ppt‎


  • Many pollutants, including pesticides and acid rain, impact plant and animal populations. These changes, in turn, threaten biodiversity.

  • Organisms are adapted to their environments and have specific tolerance ranges to conditions such as temperature. If conditions change beyond an organism’s tolerance, the organism must move to another location or face extinction.

  • Increases in Earth’s average temperatures could affect ecosystem structures and functions.

  • Scientists are not yet sure how predicted changes in global climate within the next several decades will affect ecosystem stability worldwide.

. Sumber: www.aisd.net/aisd/Portals/73/1/a/.../12F%20Ecosystem%20Stability.ppt‎


Biodiversitas stabilitas ekosistem
Biodiversitas plant and animal populations. These changes, in turn, threaten biodiversity. & StabilitasEkosistem


Biodiversitas stabilitas ekosistem1
Biodiversitas plant and animal populations. These changes, in turn, threaten biodiversity. & StabilitasEkosistem

Which organism will have the lowestenergy? Explain how you know.

Which organism will have the highestbiomass? Explain how you know.

If the blue bird consumes 100 J of energy, how much energy will the eagle be able to get from eating the blue bird?

CHALLENGE! If the grass provided 367 J of energy, how much energy will the bluebird get? What about the eagle that eats the bird?

Sumber: sanacorescience.wikispaces.com/.../6.3+Biodiversity+and+Ecosystem+Sta...‎


Low or High Biodiversity? plant and animal populations. These changes, in turn, threaten biodiversity.

Sumber: smno.agroforestry.hutanjati.saradan.2012‎


Benefits of biodiversity
Benefits of Biodiversity plant and animal populations. These changes, in turn, threaten biodiversity.

  • Key Point #1: There are three main benefits to biodiversity

    • Many people find nature beautiful

    • Provides medicines

    • Preserves ecosystem stability

Sumber: sanacorescience.wikispaces.com/.../6.3+Biodiversity+and+Ecosystem+Sta...‎


Ecosystem stability what
Ecosystem stability… What? plant and animal populations. These changes, in turn, threaten biodiversity.

  • Stable = things stay the same

  • Key Point #2: High biodiversity = stable ecosystem, low biodiversity = unstable ecosystem

    • If an ecosystem is unstable, one small change could cause many species to die

    • If an ecosystem is stable, it does not change easily

Sumber: sanacorescience.wikispaces.com/.../6.3+Biodiversity+and+Ecosystem+Sta...‎


Ms s show me another way to write that
Ms. S, show me another way to write that! plant and animal populations. These changes, in turn, threaten biodiversity.

  • Key Point #2: High biodiversity = stable ecosystem, low biodiversity = unstable ecosystem

    • CHANGE!

      • Lots of species die  Unstable

      • Most species don’t change  Stable

Sumber: sanacorescience.wikispaces.com/.../6.3+Biodiversity+and+Ecosystem+Sta...‎


This food web has low biodiversity
This food web has low biodiversity plant and animal populations. These changes, in turn, threaten biodiversity.

Rabbits eat grass. Foxes eat rabbits

Foxes

Rabbit

Grass

Sumber: sanacorescience.wikispaces.com/.../6.3+Biodiversity+and+Ecosystem+Sta...‎


Jaring-jaring plant and animal populations. These changes, in turn, threaten biodiversity. MakanandenganBiodiversitasRendah

A disturbance hits…

A drought happens and kills all the grass.

Foxes

Rabbit

Grass

Sumber: sanacorescience.wikispaces.com/.../6.3+Biodiversity+and+Ecosystem+Sta...‎


Jaring-jaring plant and animal populations. These changes, in turn, threaten biodiversity. MakanandenganBiodiversitasRendah

  • What happens to the foxes?

How many species do we have left?

Foxes

0!

Rabbit

BIG change?

Grass

Sumber: sanacorescience.wikispaces.com/.../6.3+Biodiversity+and+Ecosystem+Sta...‎


Jaring-jaring plant and animal populations. These changes, in turn, threaten biodiversity. MakanandenganBiodiversitasTinggi

Let’s add a few more species to our original ecosystem

Lettuce

Foxes

Rabbit

Chickens

Grass

Sumber: sanacorescience.wikispaces.com/.../6.3+Biodiversity+and+Ecosystem+Sta...‎


Jaring jaring makanan dnegan biodiversitas tinggi
Jaring-jaring plant and animal populations. These changes, in turn, threaten biodiversity. MakanandneganBiodiversitastinggi

A disturbance hits…

A drought happens and kills all the grass.

Foxes

Lettuce

Rabbit

Chickens

Grass

Sumber: sanacorescience.wikispaces.com/.../6.3+Biodiversity+and+Ecosystem+Sta...‎


Jaring-jaring Makanan dnegan Biodiversitas tinggi plant and animal populations. These changes, in turn, threaten biodiversity.

  • What happens to the foxes?

Population size decreases… a little

Foxes

Lettuce

Rabbit

BIG change?

Chickens

Grass

Sumber: sanacorescience.wikispaces.com/.../6.3+Biodiversity+and+Ecosystem+Sta...‎


Millennium ecosystem assessment
MILLENNIUM ECOSYSTEM ASSESSMENT plant and animal populations. These changes, in turn, threaten biodiversity.

An international scientific assessment of the consequences of ecosystem changes for human well-being:

  • Modeled on the IPCC

  • Providing information requested by:

    • Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)

    • Convention to Combat Desertification (CCD)

    • Ramsar Convention on Wetlands

    • Convention on Migratory Species (CMS)

    • other partners including the private sector and civil society

  • With the goals of:

    • stimulating and guiding action to conserve ecosystems and enhance their contribution to human well-being

    • building capacity to undertake integrated ecosystem assessments and to act on their information

. Sumber: The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: Connecting ecosystems and their services with environmental and social security. RikLeemans. Wageningen University


Tantangan manusia
TANTANGAN MANUSIA plant and animal populations. These changes, in turn, threaten biodiversity.

  • Considerable progress has been made in fighting poverty

    • life expectancy increasing

    • infant mortality decreasing

    • agricultural production increasing, etc.

  • Major problems remain

    • 1.2 billion people live on less than $1 per day

    • 1 billion people do not have access to clean water

    • More than 2 billion people have no access to sanitation

    • 1.3 billion are breathing air below the standards considered acceptable by WHO

    • 700 million people suffer from indoor air pollution due to biomass burning

. Sumber: The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: Connecting ecosystems and their services with environmental and social security. RikLeemans. Wageningen University

Source: Serageldin, 2002, Science 296:54


Global Assessment plant and animal populations. These changes, in turn, threaten biodiversity.

Users

Regional

Development

Banks, etc.

Regional

National

Government

National

Local

Community

Local

Why a Multi-Scale Assessment?Expect that findings at any scale of a multi-scale assessment will be improved by information and perspectives from other scales

Rationale

  • Characteristic scale of processes

  • Greater resolution at smaller scales

  • Independent validation of conclusions

  • Response options matched to the scale where decision-making takes place

. Sumber: The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: Connecting ecosystems and their services with environmental and social security. RikLeemans. Wageningen University


Ecosystem services the benefits people obtain from ecosystems
Ecosystem Services: plant and animal populations. These changes, in turn, threaten biodiversity. The benefits people obtain from ecosystems

Provisioning

Goods produced or provided by ecosystems

• food

• fresh water

• fuel wood

• fiber

• biochemicals

• genetic resources

Cultural

Non-material benefits obtained from ecosystems

• spiritual

• recreational

• aesthetic

• inspirational

• educational

• communal

• symbolic

Regulating

Benefits obtained from regulation of ecosystem processes

• climate regulation

• disease regulation

• flood regulation

• detoxification

Supporting

Services necessary for production of other ecosystem services.

• Soil formation

• Nutrient cycling

• Primary production

. Sumber: The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: Connecting ecosystems and their services with environmental and social security. RikLeemans. Wageningen University


. plant and animal populations. These changes, in turn, threaten biodiversity. Sumber: The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: Connecting ecosystems and their services with environmental and social security. RikLeemans. Wageningen University


Ecosystem changes affect human well being
ECOSYSTEM CHANGES AFFECT HUMAN WELL-BEING plant and animal populations. These changes, in turn, threaten biodiversity.

Security is affected both by changes in provisioning services, which affect supplies of food and other goods and the likelihood of conflict over declining resources, and by changes in regulating services, which could influence the frequency and magnitude of floods, droughts or other catastrophes. It can also be affected by changes in cultural services as, for example, when their loss contributes to the weakening of social relations in a community.

These changes in turn affect material well-being, health, freedom and choice and good social relations.

Human well-being can be enhanced through sustainable human interactions with ecosystems supported by necessary instruments, institutions, organizations, and technology. Creation of these through participation and transparency may contribute to freedoms and choice as well as to increased economic, social, and ecological security. By ecological security, we mean the minimum level of ecological stock needed to ensure a sustainable flow of ecosystem services.

. Sumber: The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: Connecting ecosystems and their services with environmental and social security. RikLeemans. Wageningen University


Isu isu yg berhubungan dg ketahanan
Isu-isu plant and animal populations. These changes, in turn, threaten biodiversity. ygberhubungan dg Ketahanan

Food and water insecurity is a second primary area of concern in changes in ecosystems services.

Multiple domains of vulnerability exist in food security regimes and livelihood systems.

Production, economic exchanges, and nutrition are key elements as well as more structural issues associated with the political economy.

Examples:

  • Desertification in China (sand storms)

  • Eutrofication in western coastal ecosystems

  • Long-term droughts and rainfall variability in the Sahel

  • Crop failures in rural Africa

. Sumber: The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: Connecting ecosystems and their services with environmental and social security. RikLeemans. Wageningen University


Framework examines multiple drivers as they influence ecosystems and human well being

Climate Change plant and animal populations. These changes, in turn, threaten biodiversity.

Climate

Change

Land Cover

Change

Biodiversity

Loss

Nutrient

Loading

Etc.

Energy

Sector

Biodiversity

Food

Supply

Water

Ecosystems

Health

Health

Economics

Economics

Social

Social

Millennium Assessment

IPCC

Framework Examines Multiple Drivers as they Influence Ecosystems and Human Well-being

Driver

Response

Human

Impact

. Sumber: The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: Connecting ecosystems and their services with environmental and social security. RikLeemans. Wageningen University


Framework allows examination of trade offs among services

Source: plant and animal populations. These changes, in turn, threaten biodiversity. Ayensu et al. 1999. Science 286:685-686.

Framework allows examination of trade-offs among services

Water availability

Food supply and demand

Freshwater supply and demand

Water use and nutrient loss

Erosion andwater flow

Land transformation

Hydrologic CO2 and temperature changes

N, CH4, N20 emissions

Forest product supply and demand

Precipitation & temperature

Climatechange

Habitat loss

Habitat loss

Loss and fragmentation of habitat

Loss of crop genetic diversity

Reduced resilience to change

Habitat change

Change in transpiration & albedo

Biodiversityloss

. Sumber: The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: Connecting ecosystems and their services with environmental and social security. RikLeemans. Wageningen University


Kerangka konseptual
KERANGKA KONSEPTUAL plant and animal populations. These changes, in turn, threaten biodiversity.

. Sumber: The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: Connecting ecosystems and their services with environmental and social security. RikLeemans. Wageningen University


Kerangka konseptual1
KERANGKA KONSEPTUAL plant and animal populations. These changes, in turn, threaten biodiversity.

. Sumber: The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: Connecting ecosystems and their services with environmental and social security. RikLeemans. Wageningen University


Kerangka konseptual2
KERANGKA KONSEPTUAL plant and animal populations. These changes, in turn, threaten biodiversity.

. Sumber: The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: Connecting ecosystems and their services with environmental and social security. RikLeemans. Wageningen University


Kerangka konseptual3
KERANGKA KONSEPTUAL plant and animal populations. These changes, in turn, threaten biodiversity.

. Sumber: The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: Connecting ecosystems and their services with environmental and social security. RikLeemans. Wageningen University


Kerangka konseptual4
KERANGKA KONSEPTUAL plant and animal populations. These changes, in turn, threaten biodiversity.

. Sumber: The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: Connecting ecosystems and their services with environmental and social security. RikLeemans. Wageningen University


Kerangka konseptual5
KERANGKA KONSEPTUAL plant and animal populations. These changes, in turn, threaten biodiversity.

. Sumber: The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: Connecting ecosystems and their services with environmental and social security. RikLeemans. Wageningen University


Preliminary findings
PRELIMINARY FINDINGS plant and animal populations. These changes, in turn, threaten biodiversity.

At a global level there have been substantial improvements in human wellbeing since the 1950s.

World population has almost tripled, but the ability to support that population expanded even more. Life expectancy increased and infant mortality rates declined almost everywhere.

. Sumber: The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: Connecting ecosystems and their services with environmental and social security. RikLeemans. Wageningen University


Preliminary findings1
PRELIMINARY FINDINGS plant and animal populations. These changes, in turn, threaten biodiversity.

More important, however, has been the enormous expansion in human capital.

Literacy rates are a proxy for the number of people with at least primary education. Literacy has increased everywhere.

Secondary and tertiary education rates have also expanded greatly.

. Sumber: The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: Connecting ecosystems and their services with environmental and social security. RikLeemans. Wageningen University


Preliminary findings2
PRELIMINARY FINDINGS plant and animal populations. These changes, in turn, threaten biodiversity.

The growth in human well-being over the last several decades has come in large part because of increases in provisioning services from several major ecosystems.

Over the last few decades, these changes have been the largest in cultivated systems, with the biggest changes in this time period coming from increased intensification rather than from large-scale conversion of land to agriculture, and coastal and marine systems, from harvesting fish resources and the addition of nutrients in coastal regions as pollutants.

. Sumber: The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: Connecting ecosystems and their services with environmental and social security. RikLeemans. Wageningen University


Preliminary findings3
Preliminary plant and animal populations. These changes, in turn, threaten biodiversity. findings

Nutrient cycling is one of the services that has been profoundly affected by human activities over long periods of time, with a significant acceleration in the last few decades.

Most of the impact on nutrient cycling has come from the large-scale agricultural changes and its inputs over the last decades. Therefore, most of the tradeoff of increased production against other non-provisioning services, such as nutrient cycling, can be tracked by focusing on areas where agriculture has changed substantially.

In the same vein, biodiversity is critical to the performance of all the buffering mechanisms that ensure an efficient use and cycling of nutrients.

. Sumber: The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: Connecting ecosystems and their services with environmental and social security. RikLeemans. Wageningen University


Temuan temuan pendahuluan
Temuan-temuan Pendahuluan plant and animal populations. These changes, in turn, threaten biodiversity.

Ecosystem changes due to trade-offs for enhancing provisioning services have played an important role in the emergence or resurgence of infectious diseases.

Ecological processes have included: niche invasion, biodiversity loss or animal species extinction, habitat degradation, loss of predator species, or alteration or replacement of animal host population densities.

. Sumber: The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: Connecting ecosystems and their services with environmental and social security. RikLeemans. Wageningen University


Preliminary findings4
PRELIMINARY FINDINGS plant and animal populations. These changes, in turn, threaten biodiversity.

It is well established that losses in biodiversity are occurring globally at all levels, from ecosystems through species, populations and genes.

The current rate of species extinction is higher than at any time in the last 65 million years, and there is an increasing trend for conversion of naturally occurring, species-rich ecosystems into more intensively managed habitats, with reduced biodiversity. The extent of loss of genetic diversity is less well understood, although recorded losses in agricultural genetic diversity are widespread.

. Sumber: The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: Connecting ecosystems and their services with environmental and social security. RikLeemans. Wageningen University


. plant and animal populations. These changes, in turn, threaten biodiversity. Sumber: smno.hutanjati.carbuan.2012


ad