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The way we Communicate
What is Communication?
The process of sending and reviewing messages to share meanings.
Elements of the Model
- Sender - Speaker
- Receiver - Listener
Verbal - using words
Two kinds of Messages
What is Feedback?
- Reaction of the receiver to the sender’s message.
- Tells the sender how to send the next message.
- How the sender decides to send the messages based on PREDICTIONS or prior knowledge about the receiver
- Applying meaning and understanding the message that has been sent
- outside influences that affect communication
- noisy room; airplane overhead
- inside influences that affect communication
- prejudices; anxiety; worry
- Channels are the senses you use in communication
Levels of Information(Encoding = Predicting reactions)
- Cultural - Little info. About receiver
- Sociological - Some general info. About the receiver.
- Individual - Personal knowledge of the receiver.
Gain & Share knowledge
Following Social rules
Purposes of Communication
What is Perception?
- Process of filtering and interpreting what your senses tell you so you can create a meaningful picture of the world.
Steps in Perception
- Something affects the senses
- see, hear, taste, smell, touch
- interpret the sensation (give meaning to it)
Past Experiences; background
Differences in Perception come from:
Differences in perception come from:
- Present feelings; circumstances
- Differences in using information
Differences in Perception come from:
- Differences in expectations
- Uses words: symbols that represent things but are not the things themselves.
- Why language changes: the world is changing. New ideas and inventions need words to describe them.
Meanings of Words
- Denotative Meaning---definition found in the dictionary
- Connotative Meaning---everyday meaning; emotional or personal response to a word
Kinds of Language
- Technical--area specific language; mechanic
- Regional---specific to geographic area; soda vs. pop
- Cultural--specific to particular religious or ethnic group; barmitzvah
All of these verbal strategies are similar to the nonverbal strategies
Verbal Strategies that affect communication
- Sending and Receiving messages without the use of words. Involves: appearance, gestures, posture, eye contact, facial expressions, spatial relations, and time.
Most communication is NONVERBAL
Intentional - using nonverbal techniques to support verbal message(s)
Accidental - nonverbal messages sent that the sender is unaware of but still communicate a message. Can contradict verbals
Never say anything that cannot improve upon silence
Vocal Cues as Nonverbals
- Pitch---the highness or lowness of voice
- Rate---how slowly or quickly a person talks
- Volume---loudness or softness of voice
- Quality---sound of the voice
- Intimate space---up to 1 1/2 feet; hugging, telling secrets
- Personal space---1 1/2 to 4 feet; quiet conversation
- Social space---4 to 12 feet; group discussions
- Public space---over 12 feet; calling or waving
Hearing - physical ability to pick up sound waves.
Listening - 4 steps
Hearing vs. Listening
Barriers to Listening
- Internal Distractions
- External Distractions
- Personal Biases
- Conflicting Demands
Stay Tuned In
Most people would rather TALK than LISTEN
- We understand 450 words per minute!
- We speak only 175 words per minute.
- How can we stay focused during the “wasted” time?
Staying Tuned in: Active Listening
- Read nonverbals
- Avoid distractions
Staying Tuned In: Active Listening
- Apply the ideas to yourself
- Know your effect on the sender
You can never NOT communicate
- Beliefs about who you are based on perceptions, expectations, and others’ reactions
- Formed early in life
- Static---Hard to change
Self Concept and Self-Efficacy
- Those with poor self-concept will complete tasks that are too EASY or too HARD
- Self-efficacy is your belief on what you can do
What you need to know for the test!!!