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COMMUNICATION MODEL. The way we Communicate. What is Communication?. The process of sending and reviewing messages to share meanings. Elements of the Model. Sender - Speaker Receiver - Listener Messages Feedback Encoding Decoding Interference. Verbal - using words volume tone.

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The way we Communicate

What is Communication?

The process of sending and reviewing messages to share meanings.

Elements of the Model

  • Sender - Speaker

  • Receiver - Listener

  • Messages

  • Feedback

  • Encoding

  • Decoding

  • Interference

Verbal - using words






body movement

eye contact

spatial relations

Two kinds of Messages

What is Feedback?

  • Reaction of the receiver to the sender’s message.

  • Tells the sender how to send the next message.


  • How the sender decides to send the messages based on PREDICTIONS or prior knowledge about the receiver


  • Applying meaning and understanding the message that has been sent


  • External

    • outside influences that affect communication

    • noisy room; airplane overhead

  • Internal

    • inside influences that affect communication

    • prejudices; anxiety; worry

Channels ofCommunication

  • Channels are the senses you use in communication

  • Hear

  • See

  • Touch

Levels of Information(Encoding = Predicting reactions)

  • Cultural - Little info. About receiver

  • Sociological - Some general info. About the receiver.

  • Individual - Personal knowledge of the receiver.


Social Contact


Gain & Share knowledge


Exchange Info.

Exerting Control

Following Social rules

Sharing Feelings

Purposes of Communication

What is Perception?

  • Process of filtering and interpreting what your senses tell you so you can create a meaningful picture of the world.

Steps in Perception

  • Something affects the senses

    • see, hear, taste, smell, touch

  • interpret the sensation (give meaning to it)

Physical Differences

Past Experiences; background

Differences in Perception come from:

Differences in perception come from:

  • Present feelings; circumstances

  • Differences in using information

Differences in Perception come from:

  • Differences in expectations

Verbal Communication

  • Uses words: symbols that represent things but are not the things themselves.

  • Why language changes: the world is changing. New ideas and inventions need words to describe them.

Meanings of Words

  • Denotative Meaning---definition found in the dictionary

  • Connotative Meaning---everyday meaning; emotional or personal response to a word

Kinds of Language

  • Technical--area specific language; mechanic

  • Regional---specific to geographic area; soda vs. pop

  • Slang---phat

  • Cultural--specific to particular religious or ethnic group; barmitzvah



Put Down

Build Up

Reveal Self

Conceal Self

All of these verbal strategies are similar to the nonverbal strategies

Verbal Strategies that affect communication

Nonverbal Communication

  • Sending and Receiving messages without the use of words. Involves: appearance, gestures, posture, eye contact, facial expressions, spatial relations, and time.

Most communication is NONVERBAL

Intentional - using nonverbal techniques to support verbal message(s)

Accidental - nonverbal messages sent that the sender is unaware of but still communicate a message. Can contradict verbals

Nonverbal Communication

Never say anything that cannot improve upon silence

Vocal Cues as Nonverbals

  • Pitch---the highness or lowness of voice

  • Rate---how slowly or quickly a person talks

  • Volume---loudness or softness of voice

  • Quality---sound of the voice

Nonverbals Can:

  • Repeat

  • support

  • contradict

  • replace

  • regulate

Spatial Relations

  • Intimate space---up to 1 1/2 feet; hugging, telling secrets

  • Personal space---1 1/2 to 4 feet; quiet conversation

  • Social space---4 to 12 feet; group discussions

  • Public space---over 12 feet; calling or waving


Accurate Receiving

Hearing - physical ability to pick up sound waves.

Listening - 4 steps





Hearing vs. Listening

Barriers to Listening

  • Internal Distractions

  • External Distractions

  • Personal Biases

  • Conflicting Demands

Active Listening:

Stay Tuned In

Most people would rather TALK than LISTEN

  • We understand 450 words per minute!

  • We speak only 175 words per minute.

  • How can we stay focused during the “wasted” time?

Staying Tuned in: Active Listening

  • Read nonverbals

  • Avoid distractions

Staying Tuned In: Active Listening

  • Apply the ideas to yourself

  • Paraphrase

  • Know your effect on the sender

You can never NOT communicate


  • Beliefs about who you are based on perceptions, expectations, and others’ reactions

  • Formed early in life

  • Static---Hard to change

Self Concept and Self-Efficacy

  • Those with poor self-concept will complete tasks that are too EASY or too HARD

  • Self-efficacy is your belief on what you can do

What you need to know for the test!!!

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