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COMMUNICATION MODEL






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COMMUNICATION MODEL. The way we Communicate. What is Communication?. The process of sending and reviewing messages to share meanings. Elements of the Model. Sender - Speaker Receiver - Listener Messages Feedback Encoding Decoding Interference . Verbal - using words volume tone.
COMMUNICATION MODEL

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Slide 1

COMMUNICATION MODEL

The way we Communicate

Slide 2

What is Communication?

The process of sending and reviewing messages to share meanings.

Slide 3

Elements of the Model

  • Sender - Speaker

  • Receiver - Listener

  • Messages

  • Feedback

  • Encoding

  • Decoding

  • Interference

Slide 4

Verbal - using words

volume

tone

Non-Verbal

appearance

gestures

body movement

eye contact

spatial relations

Two kinds of Messages

Slide 5

What is Feedback?

  • Reaction of the receiver to the sender’s message.

  • Tells the sender how to send the next message.

Slide 6

Encoding

  • How the sender decides to send the messages based on PREDICTIONS or prior knowledge about the receiver

Slide 7

Decoding

  • Applying meaning and understanding the message that has been sent

Slide 8

Interference

  • External

    • outside influences that affect communication

    • noisy room; airplane overhead

  • Internal

    • inside influences that affect communication

    • prejudices; anxiety; worry

Slide 9

Channels ofCommunication

  • Channels are the senses you use in communication

  • Hear

  • See

  • Touch

Slide 10

Levels of Information(Encoding = Predicting reactions)

  • Cultural - Little info. About receiver

  • Sociological - Some general info. About the receiver.

  • Individual - Personal knowledge of the receiver.

Slide 11

General

Social Contact

Self-Esteem

Gain & Share knowledge

Specific

Exchange Info.

Exerting Control

Following Social rules

Sharing Feelings

Purposes of Communication

Slide 12

What is Perception?

  • Process of filtering and interpreting what your senses tell you so you can create a meaningful picture of the world.

Slide 13

Steps in Perception

  • Something affects the senses

    • see, hear, taste, smell, touch

  • interpret the sensation (give meaning to it)

Slide 14

Physical Differences

Past Experiences; background

Differences in Perception come from:

Slide 15

Differences in perception come from:

  • Present feelings; circumstances

  • Differences in using information

Slide 16

Differences in Perception come from:

  • Differences in expectations

Slide 17

Verbal Communication

  • Uses words: symbols that represent things but are not the things themselves.

  • Why language changes: the world is changing. New ideas and inventions need words to describe them.

Slide 18

Meanings of Words

  • Denotative Meaning---definition found in the dictionary

  • Connotative Meaning---everyday meaning; emotional or personal response to a word

Slide 19

Kinds of Language

  • Technical--area specific language; mechanic

  • Regional---specific to geographic area; soda vs. pop

  • Slang---phat

  • Cultural--specific to particular religious or ethnic group; barmitzvah

Slide 20

Exclude

Include

Put Down

Build Up

Reveal Self

Conceal Self

All of these verbal strategies are similar to the nonverbal strategies

Verbal Strategies that affect communication

Slide 21

Nonverbal Communication

  • Sending and Receiving messages without the use of words. Involves: appearance, gestures, posture, eye contact, facial expressions, spatial relations, and time.

Slide 22

Most communication is NONVERBAL

Slide 23

Intentional - using nonverbal techniques to support verbal message(s)

Accidental - nonverbal messages sent that the sender is unaware of but still communicate a message. Can contradict verbals

Nonverbal Communication

Slide 24

Never say anything that cannot improve upon silence

Slide 25

Vocal Cues as Nonverbals

  • Pitch---the highness or lowness of voice

  • Rate---how slowly or quickly a person talks

  • Volume---loudness or softness of voice

  • Quality---sound of the voice

Slide 26

Nonverbals Can:

  • Repeat

  • support

  • contradict

  • replace

  • regulate

Slide 27

Spatial Relations

  • Intimate space---up to 1 1/2 feet; hugging, telling secrets

  • Personal space---1 1/2 to 4 feet; quiet conversation

  • Social space---4 to 12 feet; group discussions

  • Public space---over 12 feet; calling or waving

Slide 28

Listening

Accurate Receiving

Slide 29

Hearing - physical ability to pick up sound waves.

Listening - 4 steps

hear

interpret

understand

recall

Hearing vs. Listening

Slide 30

Barriers to Listening

  • Internal Distractions

  • External Distractions

  • Personal Biases

  • Conflicting Demands

Slide 31

Active Listening:

Stay Tuned In

Slide 32

Most people would rather TALK than LISTEN

Slide 33

  • We understand 450 words per minute!

  • We speak only 175 words per minute.

  • How can we stay focused during the “wasted” time?

Slide 34

Staying Tuned in: Active Listening

  • Read nonverbals

  • Avoid distractions

Slide 35

Staying Tuned In: Active Listening

  • Apply the ideas to yourself

  • Paraphrase

  • Know your effect on the sender

Slide 36

You can never NOT communicate

Slide 37

Self-Concept

  • Beliefs about who you are based on perceptions, expectations, and others’ reactions

  • Formed early in life

  • Static---Hard to change

Slide 38

Self Concept and Self-Efficacy

  • Those with poor self-concept will complete tasks that are too EASY or too HARD

  • Self-efficacy is your belief on what you can do

Slide 40

What you need to know for the test!!!


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