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What is Communication?. The process of sending and reviewing messages to share meanings.. Elements of the Model. Sender - SpeakerReceiver - ListenerMessagesFeedbackEncodingDecodingInterference. Two kinds of Messages. Verbal - using wordsvolumetone. Non-Verbalappearancegesturesbody movementeye contactspatial relations.
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The way we Communicate
What is Communication?
The process of sending and reviewing messages to share meanings.
Elements of the Model Sender - Speaker Receiver - Listener Messages Feedback Encoding Decoding Interference
Verbal - using words
Two kinds of Messages What is Feedback? Reaction of the receiver to the sender’s message. Tells the sender how to send the next message. Encoding How the sender decides to send the messages based on PREDICTIONS or prior knowledge about the receiver Decoding Applying meaning and understanding the message that has been sent Interference External outside influences that affect communication noisy room; airplane overhead Internal inside influences that affect communication prejudices; anxiety; worry Channels ofCommunication Channels are the senses you use in communication Hear See Touch Levels of Information(Encoding = Predicting reactions) Cultural - Little info. About receiver Sociological - Some general info. About the receiver. Individual - Personal knowledge of the receiver.
Gain & Share knowledge
Following Social rules
Purposes of Communication What is Perception? Process of filtering and interpreting what your senses tell you so you can create a meaningful picture of the world. Steps in Perception Something affects the senses see, hear, taste, smell, touch interpret the sensation (give meaning to it)
Past Experiences; background
Differences in Perception come from: Differences in perception come from: Present feelings; circumstances Differences in using information Differences in Perception come from: Differences in expectations Verbal Communication Uses words: symbols that represent things but are not the things themselves. Why language changes: the world is changing. New ideas and inventions need words to describe them. Meanings of Words Denotative Meaning---definition found in the dictionary Connotative Meaning---everyday meaning; emotional or personal response to a word Kinds of Language Technical--area specific language; mechanic Regional---specific to geographic area; soda vs. pop Slang---phat Cultural--specific to particular religious or ethnic group; barmitzvah
All of these verbal strategies are similar to the nonverbal strategies
Verbal Strategies that affect communication Nonverbal Communication Sending and Receiving messages without the use of words. Involves: appearance, gestures, posture, eye contact, facial expressions, spatial relations, and time. Most communication is NONVERBAL
Intentional - using nonverbal techniques to support verbal message(s)
Accidental - nonverbal messages sent that the sender is unaware of but still communicate a message. Can contradict verbals
Nonverbal Communication Never say anything that cannot improve upon silence Vocal Cues as Nonverbals Pitch---the highness or lowness of voice Rate---how slowly or quickly a person talks Volume---loudness or softness of voice Quality---sound of the voice Nonverbals Can: Repeat support contradict replace regulate Spatial Relations Intimate space---up to 1 1/2 feet; hugging, telling secrets Personal space---1 1/2 to 4 feet; quiet conversation Social space---4 to 12 feet; group discussions Public space---over 12 feet; calling or waving
Hearing - physical ability to pick up sound waves.
Listening - 4 steps
Hearing vs. Listening Barriers to Listening Internal Distractions External Distractions Personal Biases Conflicting Demands
Stay Tuned In
Most people would rather TALK than LISTEN We understand 450 words per minute! We speak only 175 words per minute. How can we stay focused during the “wasted” time? Staying Tuned in: Active Listening Read nonverbals Avoid distractions Staying Tuned In: Active Listening Apply the ideas to yourself Paraphrase Know your effect on the sender You can never NOT communicate Self-Concept Beliefs about who you are based on perceptions, expectations, and others’ reactions Formed early in life Static---Hard to change Self Concept and Self-Efficacy Those with poor self-concept will complete tasks that are too EASY or too HARD Self-efficacy is your belief on what you can do What you need to know for the test!!!