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COMMUNICATION MODEL. The way we Communicate. What is Communication?. The process of sending and reviewing messages to share meanings. Elements of the Model. Sender - Speaker Receiver - Listener Messages Feedback Encoding Decoding Interference . Verbal - using words volume tone.

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communication model

COMMUNICATION MODEL

The way we Communicate

what is communication

What is Communication?

The process of sending and reviewing messages to share meanings.

elements of the model
Elements of the Model
  • Sender - Speaker
  • Receiver - Listener
  • Messages
  • Feedback
  • Encoding
  • Decoding
  • Interference
two kinds of messages
Verbal - using words

volume

tone

Non-Verbal

appearance

gestures

body movement

eye contact

spatial relations

Two kinds of Messages
what is feedback
What is Feedback?
  • Reaction of the receiver to the sender’s message.
  • Tells the sender how to send the next message.
encoding
Encoding
  • How the sender decides to send the messages based on PREDICTIONS or prior knowledge about the receiver
decoding
Decoding
  • Applying meaning and understanding the message that has been sent
interference
Interference
  • External
    • outside influences that affect communication
    • noisy room; airplane overhead
  • Internal
    • inside influences that affect communication
    • prejudices; anxiety; worry
channels of communication
Channels ofCommunication
  • Channels are the senses you use in communication
  • Hear
  • See
  • Touch
levels of information encoding predicting reactions
Levels of Information(Encoding = Predicting reactions)
  • Cultural - Little info. About receiver
  • Sociological - Some general info. About the receiver.
  • Individual - Personal knowledge of the receiver.
purposes of communication
General

Social Contact

Self-Esteem

Gain & Share knowledge

Specific

Exchange Info.

Exerting Control

Following Social rules

Sharing Feelings

Purposes of Communication
what is perception
What is Perception?
  • Process of filtering and interpreting what your senses tell you so you can create a meaningful picture of the world.
steps in perception
Steps in Perception
  • Something affects the senses
    • see, hear, taste, smell, touch
  • interpret the sensation (give meaning to it)
differences in perception come from15
Differences in perception come from:
  • Present feelings; circumstances
  • Differences in using information
differences in perception come from16
Differences in Perception come from:
  • Differences in expectations
verbal communication
Verbal Communication
  • Uses words: symbols that represent things but are not the things themselves.
  • Why language changes: the world is changing. New ideas and inventions need words to describe them.
meanings of words
Meanings of Words
  • Denotative Meaning---definition found in the dictionary
  • Connotative Meaning---everyday meaning; emotional or personal response to a word
kinds of language
Kinds of Language
  • Technical--area specific language; mechanic
  • Regional---specific to geographic area; soda vs. pop
  • Slang---phat
  • Cultural--specific to particular religious or ethnic group; barmitzvah
verbal strategies that affect communication
Exclude

Include

Put Down

Build Up

Reveal Self

Conceal Self

All of these verbal strategies are similar to the nonverbal strategies

Verbal Strategies that affect communication
nonverbal communication
Nonverbal Communication
  • Sending and Receiving messages without the use of words. Involves: appearance, gestures, posture, eye contact, facial expressions, spatial relations, and time.
nonverbal communication23
Intentional - using nonverbal techniques to support verbal message(s)

Accidental - nonverbal messages sent that the sender is unaware of but still communicate a message. Can contradict verbals

Nonverbal Communication
vocal cues as nonverbals
Vocal Cues as Nonverbals
  • Pitch---the highness or lowness of voice
  • Rate---how slowly or quickly a person talks
  • Volume---loudness or softness of voice
  • Quality---sound of the voice
nonverbals can
Nonverbals Can:
  • Repeat
  • support
  • contradict
  • replace
  • regulate
spatial relations
Spatial Relations
  • Intimate space---up to 1 1/2 feet; hugging, telling secrets
  • Personal space---1 1/2 to 4 feet; quiet conversation
  • Social space---4 to 12 feet; group discussions
  • Public space---over 12 feet; calling or waving
listening

Listening

Accurate Receiving

hearing vs listening
Hearing - physical ability to pick up sound waves.

Listening - 4 steps

hear

interpret

understand

recall

Hearing vs. Listening
barriers to listening
Barriers to Listening
  • Internal Distractions
  • External Distractions
  • Personal Biases
  • Conflicting Demands
active listening

Active Listening:

Stay Tuned In

slide33
We understand 450 words per minute!
  • We speak only 175 words per minute.
  • How can we stay focused during the “wasted” time?
staying tuned in active listening
Staying Tuned in: Active Listening
  • Read nonverbals
  • Avoid distractions
staying tuned in active listening35
Staying Tuned In: Active Listening
  • Apply the ideas to yourself
  • Paraphrase
  • Know your effect on the sender
self concept
Self-Concept
  • Beliefs about who you are based on perceptions, expectations, and others’ reactions
  • Formed early in life
  • Static---Hard to change
self concept and self efficacy
Self Concept and Self-Efficacy
  • Those with poor self-concept will complete tasks that are too EASY or too HARD
  • Self-efficacy is your belief on what you can do
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