A scheme for municipal wastewater treatment in i ndia
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A SCHEME FOR MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN I NDIA PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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A SCHEME FOR MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN I NDIA. By PROF SOLI J ARCEIVALA Formerly, Chief, Environmental Health, UN / WHO SE Asia Region and Director, NEERI, Nagpur . SANITATION. After more than 60 years of freedom, sanitation coverage is almost a disgrace

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A SCHEME FOR MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN I NDIA

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A scheme for municipal wastewater treatment in i ndia

A SCHEME FOR MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN INDIA

By

PROF SOLI J ARCEIVALA

Formerly, Chief, Environmental Health, UN / WHO SE Asia Region

and Director, NEERI, Nagpur


Sanitation

SANITATION

  • After more than 60 years of freedom, sanitation coverage is almost a disgrace

  • It is sometimes joked that we have 5-star hotels in 0-star cities !

  • In some towns, there is no collection system, and where there is a collection system there is no proper treatment.

  • HOW CAN WE SPEED UP SANITATION COVERAGE IN THE STATE OF GUJARAT , AND IN INDIA AS A WHOLE --- as far as treatment is concerned?


To speed up treatment it will help if we follow some rules

TO SPEED UP TREATMENTIt will help if wefollow some Rules

RULE 1:

Give the local bodies what they can afford and what they can maintain

Offer the more sophisticated processes to industries, not local bodies

RULE 2:

For smaller municipalities offer “natural” methods of treatment that do not require electric power. This way treatment remains affordable and plant remains maintainable.


1 st mantra treatment should be affordable acceptable manageable

1st MANTRA: TREATMENT SHOULD BE AFFORDABLE, ACCEPTABLE & MANAGEABLE

ww

Aerated Lagoon

Oxidation Pond Groundwater

Recharge

Irrigation Field to grow high-value crops

PRINCIPLES OF SUGGESTED MODEL

1. AL & OP are simplest processes. One can optimize costs between them

2. Reuse water to grow high-value crops. Conserve whatever water is left

3. Produce something useful for local people. Improve sustainability


The model flow sheet

THE MODEL FLOW-SHEET

  • The model flow-sheet is affordable, acceptable and manageable.

  • It is also very flexible. It can be used everywhere -- from big cities to small towns


For larger cities where power and land are available but land is expensive

FOR LARGER CITIESWhere power and land are available, but land is expensive

Use for irrigation, or

wwsend to River

Aerated Lagoon only

Reuse in industries

Treat further for reuse

at industries cost

- Provide Aerated Lagoon only (no oxidation pond).

- Discharge effluent to a riveror use in irrigation, or better still

- Reuse effluent in local industries after further treatment (in case of

big cities)


For medium sized towns where usually electricity and land are both available

FOR MEDIUM-SIZED TOWNSwhere usually electricity and land are both available

Aerated Lagoon

Oxidation PondRecharge

Groundwater

Irrigation Field to grow high-value crops

Use a combination of AL + OP depending on relative cost of land and power (optimized for least cost)

OR

Use only Oxidation Pond, if enough land is available, to avoid any form of mechanization.

Follow this by land irrigation & gr water rechargeto conserve water


For very small towns where electricity is not available but land is available

FOR VERY SMALL TOWNS where electricity is not available, but land is available

  • Provide only Oxidation Pond OR Constructed wetland

  • Followed by Land Irrigation + Gr Water recharge

    In either case, no power is needed, and water is

    conserved


2 nd mantra

2ndMANTRA

To speed up application in the State and the whole country

- SIMPLIFY

- STANDARDISE

- LOCALISE


Help local bodies to help themselves

HELP LOCAL BODIES TO HELP THEMSELVES

  • TO SIMPLIFY: We use only aerated lagoons + oxidation ponds

    Their operation & maintenance are also simple

  • TO STANDARDIZE: Only machinery (Aerators) can be standardized.

    Costs reduced.

    Repairs/replacement easy

  • TO LOCALIZE: AL and OP construction are similar & simple

    and can be done by local people. So also

    Cultivation of high-value crops.

    Employment prospects for local people improved.

    Sustainability also improves


Advantages

ADVANTAGES

1. Flowsheet is flexible and can be used for any size of town

2. Treatment method is extremely simple. No imports. No machinery

3. Floating Aerators can be standardized and outsourced for manufac

4. AL and OP are similar in construction. Local labour and materials

5. Wastewater is reused for irrigation. Remaining water is conserved

6. A high-value crop is cultivated. Good for local employment

7. Sustainability is improved

8. A renewable source of energy can be used, if desired


Thank you

THANK YOU


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