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Lab Activity 1. Language of Anatomy Martini Chapter 1. Portland Community College BI 231. Anatomy. Gross anatomy : the study of body structures visible to the naked eye (without a microscope) Microscopic anatomy: Cytology : Analysis of the internal structures of individual cells

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lab activity 1

Lab Activity 1

Language of Anatomy

Martini Chapter 1

Portland Community College

BI 231

anatomy
Anatomy
  • Gross anatomy: the study of body structures visible to the naked eye (without a microscope)
  • Microscopic anatomy:
    • Cytology: Analysis of the internal structures of individual cells
    • Histology: examination of tissues (groups of specialized cells that work together to perform a specific function.
anatomical position
Anytime you describe structures relative to one another, you must assume this standard position:

Body erect

Feet slightly apart

Palms facing forward

Thumbs point away from body

Anatomical Position
anatomical locations
Anatomical Locations
  • Abdominal: abdominal region
  • Acromial: the point of the shoulder
  • Antebrachial: forearm
  • Antecubital: anterior surface of the elbow
  • Axillary: armpit
  • Brachial: upper arm
  • Buccal: cheek of the face
  • Calcaneal: heel of the foot
  • Carpal: wrist
  • Cephalic: head
anatomical locations1
Anatomical Locations
  • Cervical: neck
  • Deltoid: round part of the shoulder
  • Digital: fingers and toes
  • Dorsum: back
  • Femoral: thigh
  • Frontal: forehead
  • Gluteal: buttocks
  • Hallux: big toe
  • Inguinal: groin
  • Lumbar: lower back
  • Mammary: breast
anatomical locations2
Anatomical Locations
  • Mental: chin
  • Nasal: Nose
  • Occipital: base of the skull
  • Olecranal: elbow
  • Oral: mouth
  • Orbital: bony eye socket
  • Otic: ear
  • Palmar: palm of hand
  • Patellar: Kneecap
  • Pedal: Foot
anatomical locations3
Anatomical Locations
  • Pelvic: pelvis region
  • Perineal: area between anus and external genitals
  • Plantar: sole of foot
  • Pollex: thumb
  • Popliteal: behind the knee
  • Pubic: genital region
  • Sacral: lower back between the hips
  • Scapular: shoulder blade
  • Tarsal: ankle
  • Thoracic: chest
  • Vertebral: spine
body orientation and direction
These are relative positions

Proximal/distal

Used to describe locations on the arms and legs

GI tract

Medial/lateral

Medial is closer to the midline

Farther away from the midline

Body Orientationand Direction
body orientation and direction1
Dorsal: Back

Ventral: Front

Superior or Cephalad is toward the head

Inferior or Caudal is toward the feet

Anterior: most forward

Posterior: toward the backside

Body Orientation and Direction
cavities
Thoracic Cavity

Heart & Lungs

Subdivided into the mediastinum and plural cavities

Lower border is the diaphragm

Abdominal Cavity

Stomach, Liver, Intestines

Pelvic Cavity

Reproductive organs Bladder, Rectum

Cavities
serous membranes
Serous Membranes
  • Serous Membranes have two layers
    • Parietal serosa lines internal body walls
    • Visceral serosa covers the internal organs
    • Serous fluid separates the serosae
quadrants
RUQ

Liver

LUQ

Spleen

RLQ

Appendix

LLQ

Sigmoid colon

Quadrants
lab activity 2

Lab Activity 2

Organ Systems

Martini Chapter 1, Pages 9-10

integumentary system
Integumentary System
  • Structures: Skin, hair, sweat and oil glands
  • Function:
    • Forms external body covering
    • Protects deeper tissues from injury
    • Involved in vitamin D synthesis
    • Prevents desiccation, heat loss, and pathogen entry
    • Site of pain and pressure receptors
skeletal system
Skeletal System
  • Structure: 206 bones of the human body
  • Function:
    • Protects and supports body organs
    • Provides a framework that muscles can use to create movement
    • Hematopoiesis (synthesis of blood cells)
    • Mineral storage
      • Bone contains 99% of the body’s store of calcium
muscular system
Muscular System
  • Structures: The 600+ muscles of the body
  • Function:
    • Locomotion
    • Manipulation of the environment
    • Maintaining posture
    • Thermogenesis (generation of heat)
nervous system
Nervous System
  • Structures: Brain, Spinal cord,

and peripheral nerves.

  • Function:
    • Fast-acting control system of the body
    • Monitoring of the internal and external environment and responding (when necessary) by initiating muscular or glandular activity
    • Information Assessment
endocrine system
Endocrine System
  • Structures: Hormone Secreting Glands
    • Pituitary, Thyroid, Thymus, Pineal, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Small Intestine, Stomach, Testes, Ovaries, Kidneys, Heart
  • Functions:
    • Long-term control system of the body
    • Regulates growth, reproduction, and nutrient use among other things.
cardiovascular system
Cardiovascular System
  • Structures:
    • Heart, Blood vessels (arteries, veins, and capillaries)
  • Functions:
    • The heart pumps blood thru the blood vessels.
    • Blood provides the transport medium for nutrients (glucose, amino acids, lipids), gases (O2, CO2), wastes (urea, creatinine), signaling molecules (hormones), and heat.
lymphatic immune system
Lymphatic/Immune System
  • Structures:
    • Lymphatic vessels, Lymph nodes, Spleen, Thymus, Red bone marrow
  • Functions:
    • Returning “leaked” fluid back to the bloodstream
    • Disposal of debris
    • Attacking and resisting foreign invaders (pathogens i.e., disease-causing organisms)
    • Absorption of fat from the digestive tract
respiratory system
Respiratory System
  • Structures:
    • Nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs
  • Functions:
    • Constantly supply the blood with O2, and remove CO2
    • Regulate blood pH
digestive system
Digestive System
  • Structures:
    • Oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, gallbladder
  • Functions:
    • Ingestion and subsequent breakdown of food into absorbable units that will enter the blood for distribution to the body’s cells
urinary system
Urinary System
  • Structures:
    • Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder,

urethra

  • Functions:
    • Removal of nitrogenous wastes
    • Regulation of body’s levels of water, electrolytes, and acidity
reproductive system
Reproductive System
  • Structures:
    • Male:
      • Testes, scrotum, epididymis, vas deferens, urethra, prostate gland, seminal vesicles, penis
    • Female:
      • Ovary, uterine tube, uterus, cervix, vagina, mammary glands
  • Functions:
    • Making Babies
lab activity 3

Lab Activity 3

The Microscope

care of the microscope
Care of the Microscope
  • When transporting microscope, hold in upright position with one hand on the arm and the other supporting the base
  • Only use lens paper to clean the lens. NEVER USE KIMWIPES.
  • Always begin the focusing process with the lowest-power objective and change to higher-power lenses as necessary.
    • Use fine focus only for adjustment
  • Use coarse adjustment knob only with the lowest power objective lens
  • Always use a coverslip with temporary preparations
putting microscope away
Putting Microscope Away
  • Remove slides from stage and place in appropriate place
  • Rotate the lowest-power objective lens into position
  • Move stage to the lowest position
  • Turn down light brightness
  • Turn off power
  • Wipe microscope (not the lens) with Kimwipes or alcohol wipe if needed
  • Wrap the cord neatly around the base
  • Lock the cabinet
the end
The End

The End

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