Lab activity 1
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 36

Lab Activity 1 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 82 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Lab Activity 1. Language of Anatomy Martini Chapter 1. Portland Community College BI 231. Anatomy. Gross anatomy : the study of body structures visible to the naked eye (without a microscope) Microscopic anatomy: Cytology : Analysis of the internal structures of individual cells

Download Presentation

Lab Activity 1

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Lab Activity 1

Language of Anatomy

Martini Chapter 1

Portland Community College

BI 231


Anatomy

  • Gross anatomy: the study of body structures visible to the naked eye (without a microscope)

  • Microscopic anatomy:

    • Cytology: Analysis of the internal structures of individual cells

    • Histology: examination of tissues (groups of specialized cells that work together to perform a specific function.


Anytime you describe structures relative to one another, you must assume this standard position:

Body erect

Feet slightly apart

Palms facing forward

Thumbs point away from body

Anatomical Position


Anterior Landmarks


PosteriorLandmarks


Anatomical Locations

  • Abdominal: abdominal region

  • Acromial: the point of the shoulder

  • Antebrachial: forearm

  • Antecubital: anterior surface of the elbow

  • Axillary: armpit

  • Brachial: upper arm

  • Buccal: cheek of the face

  • Calcaneal: heel of the foot

  • Carpal: wrist

  • Cephalic: head


Anatomical Locations

  • Cervical: neck

  • Deltoid: round part of the shoulder

  • Digital: fingers and toes

  • Dorsum: back

  • Femoral: thigh

  • Frontal: forehead

  • Gluteal: buttocks

  • Hallux: big toe

  • Inguinal: groin

  • Lumbar: lower back

  • Mammary: breast


Anatomical Locations

  • Mental: chin

  • Nasal: Nose

  • Occipital: base of the skull

  • Olecranal: elbow

  • Oral: mouth

  • Orbital: bony eye socket

  • Otic: ear

  • Palmar: palm of hand

  • Patellar: Kneecap

  • Pedal: Foot


Anatomical Locations

  • Pelvic: pelvis region

  • Perineal: area between anus and external genitals

  • Plantar: sole of foot

  • Pollex: thumb

  • Popliteal: behind the knee

  • Pubic: genital region

  • Sacral: lower back between the hips

  • Scapular: shoulder blade

  • Tarsal: ankle

  • Thoracic: chest

  • Vertebral: spine


These are relative positions

Proximal/distal

Used to describe locations on the arms and legs

GI tract

Medial/lateral

Medial is closer to the midline

Farther away from the midline

Body Orientationand Direction


Dorsal: Back

Ventral: Front

Superior or Cephalad is toward the head

Inferior or Caudal is toward the feet

Anterior: most forward

Posterior: toward the backside

Body Orientation and Direction


Planes of the Body


Dorsal cavity protects the nervous system

Contains Brain and Spinal Cord

Dorsal Body Cavity


Thoracic Cavity

Heart & Lungs

Subdivided into the mediastinum and plural cavities

Lower border is the diaphragm

Abdominal Cavity

Stomach, Liver, Intestines

Pelvic Cavity

Reproductive organs Bladder, Rectum

Cavities


Serous Membranes

  • Serous Membranes have two layers

    • Parietal serosa lines internal body walls

    • Visceral serosa covers the internal organs

    • Serous fluid separates the serosae


Serous Membranes


Serous Membranes of the Heart


RUQ

Liver

LUQ

Spleen

RLQ

Appendix

LLQ

Sigmoid colon

Quadrants


Abdominopelvic Regions


Lab Activity 2

Organ Systems

Martini Chapter 1, Pages 9-10


Integumentary System

  • Structures: Skin, hair, sweat and oil glands

  • Function:

    • Forms external body covering

    • Protects deeper tissues from injury

    • Involved in vitamin D synthesis

    • Prevents desiccation, heat loss, and pathogen entry

    • Site of pain and pressure receptors


Skeletal System

  • Structure: 206 bones of the human body

  • Function:

    • Protects and supports body organs

    • Provides a framework that muscles can use to create movement

    • Hematopoiesis (synthesis of blood cells)

    • Mineral storage

      • Bone contains 99% of the body’s store of calcium


Muscular System

  • Structures: The 600+ muscles of the body

  • Function:

    • Locomotion

    • Manipulation of the environment

    • Maintaining posture

    • Thermogenesis (generation of heat)


Nervous System

  • Structures: Brain, Spinal cord,

    and peripheral nerves.

  • Function:

    • Fast-acting control system of the body

    • Monitoring of the internal and external environment and responding (when necessary) by initiating muscular or glandular activity

    • Information Assessment


Endocrine System

  • Structures: Hormone Secreting Glands

    • Pituitary, Thyroid, Thymus, Pineal, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Small Intestine, Stomach, Testes, Ovaries, Kidneys, Heart

  • Functions:

    • Long-term control system of the body

    • Regulates growth, reproduction, and nutrient use among other things.


Cardiovascular System

  • Structures:

    • Heart, Blood vessels (arteries, veins, and capillaries)

  • Functions:

    • The heart pumps blood thru the blood vessels.

    • Blood provides the transport medium for nutrients (glucose, amino acids, lipids), gases (O2, CO2), wastes (urea, creatinine), signaling molecules (hormones), and heat.


Lymphatic/Immune System

  • Structures:

    • Lymphatic vessels, Lymph nodes, Spleen, Thymus, Red bone marrow

  • Functions:

    • Returning “leaked” fluid back to the bloodstream

    • Disposal of debris

    • Attacking and resisting foreign invaders (pathogens i.e., disease-causing organisms)

    • Absorption of fat from the digestive tract


Respiratory System

  • Structures:

    • Nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs

  • Functions:

    • Constantly supply the blood with O2, and remove CO2

    • Regulate blood pH


Digestive System

  • Structures:

    • Oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, gallbladder

  • Functions:

    • Ingestion and subsequent breakdown of food into absorbable units that will enter the blood for distribution to the body’s cells


Urinary System

  • Structures:

    • Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder,

      urethra

  • Functions:

    • Removal of nitrogenous wastes

    • Regulation of body’s levels of water, electrolytes, and acidity


Reproductive System

  • Structures:

    • Male:

      • Testes, scrotum, epididymis, vas deferens, urethra, prostate gland, seminal vesicles, penis

    • Female:

      • Ovary, uterine tube, uterus, cervix, vagina, mammary glands

  • Functions:

    • Making Babies


Lab Activity 3

The Microscope


Care of the Microscope

  • When transporting microscope, hold in upright position with one hand on the arm and the other supporting the base

  • Only use lens paper to clean the lens. NEVER USE KIMWIPES.

  • Always begin the focusing process with the lowest-power objective and change to higher-power lenses as necessary.

    • Use fine focus only for adjustment

  • Use coarse adjustment knob only with the lowest power objective lens

  • Always use a coverslip with temporary preparations


Putting Microscope Away

  • Remove slides from stage and place in appropriate place

  • Rotate the lowest-power objective lens into position

  • Move stage to the lowest position

  • Turn down light brightness

  • Turn off power

  • Wipe microscope (not the lens) with Kimwipes or alcohol wipe if needed

  • Wrap the cord neatly around the base

  • Lock the cabinet


The End

The End


  • Login