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Lab Activity 1. Language of Anatomy Martini Chapter 1. Portland Community College BI 231. Anatomy. Gross anatomy : the study of body structures visible to the naked eye (without a microscope) Microscopic anatomy: Cytology : Analysis of the internal structures of individual cells

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Lab Activity 1

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Lab activity 1

Lab Activity 1

Language of Anatomy

Martini Chapter 1

Portland Community College

BI 231



  • Gross anatomy: the study of body structures visible to the naked eye (without a microscope)

  • Microscopic anatomy:

    • Cytology: Analysis of the internal structures of individual cells

    • Histology: examination of tissues (groups of specialized cells that work together to perform a specific function.

Anatomical position

Anytime you describe structures relative to one another, you must assume this standard position:

Body erect

Feet slightly apart

Palms facing forward

Thumbs point away from body

Anatomical Position

Anterior landmarks

Anterior Landmarks

Posterior landmarks


Anatomical locations

Anatomical Locations

  • Abdominal: abdominal region

  • Acromial: the point of the shoulder

  • Antebrachial: forearm

  • Antecubital: anterior surface of the elbow

  • Axillary: armpit

  • Brachial: upper arm

  • Buccal: cheek of the face

  • Calcaneal: heel of the foot

  • Carpal: wrist

  • Cephalic: head

Anatomical locations1

Anatomical Locations

  • Cervical: neck

  • Deltoid: round part of the shoulder

  • Digital: fingers and toes

  • Dorsum: back

  • Femoral: thigh

  • Frontal: forehead

  • Gluteal: buttocks

  • Hallux: big toe

  • Inguinal: groin

  • Lumbar: lower back

  • Mammary: breast

Anatomical locations2

Anatomical Locations

  • Mental: chin

  • Nasal: Nose

  • Occipital: base of the skull

  • Olecranal: elbow

  • Oral: mouth

  • Orbital: bony eye socket

  • Otic: ear

  • Palmar: palm of hand

  • Patellar: Kneecap

  • Pedal: Foot

Anatomical locations3

Anatomical Locations

  • Pelvic: pelvis region

  • Perineal: area between anus and external genitals

  • Plantar: sole of foot

  • Pollex: thumb

  • Popliteal: behind the knee

  • Pubic: genital region

  • Sacral: lower back between the hips

  • Scapular: shoulder blade

  • Tarsal: ankle

  • Thoracic: chest

  • Vertebral: spine

Body orientation and direction

These are relative positions


Used to describe locations on the arms and legs

GI tract


Medial is closer to the midline

Farther away from the midline

Body Orientationand Direction

Body orientation and direction1

Dorsal: Back

Ventral: Front

Superior or Cephalad is toward the head

Inferior or Caudal is toward the feet

Anterior: most forward

Posterior: toward the backside

Body Orientation and Direction

Planes of the body

Planes of the Body

Dorsal body cavity

Dorsal cavity protects the nervous system

Contains Brain and Spinal Cord

Dorsal Body Cavity


Thoracic Cavity

Heart & Lungs

Subdivided into the mediastinum and plural cavities

Lower border is the diaphragm

Abdominal Cavity

Stomach, Liver, Intestines

Pelvic Cavity

Reproductive organs Bladder, Rectum


Serous membranes

Serous Membranes

  • Serous Membranes have two layers

    • Parietal serosa lines internal body walls

    • Visceral serosa covers the internal organs

    • Serous fluid separates the serosae

Serous membranes1

Serous Membranes

Serous membranes of the heart

Serous Membranes of the Heart









Sigmoid colon


Abdominopelvic regions

Abdominopelvic Regions

Lab activity 2

Lab Activity 2

Organ Systems

Martini Chapter 1, Pages 9-10

Integumentary system

Integumentary System

  • Structures: Skin, hair, sweat and oil glands

  • Function:

    • Forms external body covering

    • Protects deeper tissues from injury

    • Involved in vitamin D synthesis

    • Prevents desiccation, heat loss, and pathogen entry

    • Site of pain and pressure receptors

Skeletal system

Skeletal System

  • Structure: 206 bones of the human body

  • Function:

    • Protects and supports body organs

    • Provides a framework that muscles can use to create movement

    • Hematopoiesis (synthesis of blood cells)

    • Mineral storage

      • Bone contains 99% of the body’s store of calcium

Muscular system

Muscular System

  • Structures: The 600+ muscles of the body

  • Function:

    • Locomotion

    • Manipulation of the environment

    • Maintaining posture

    • Thermogenesis (generation of heat)

Nervous system

Nervous System

  • Structures: Brain, Spinal cord,

    and peripheral nerves.

  • Function:

    • Fast-acting control system of the body

    • Monitoring of the internal and external environment and responding (when necessary) by initiating muscular or glandular activity

    • Information Assessment

Endocrine system

Endocrine System

  • Structures: Hormone Secreting Glands

    • Pituitary, Thyroid, Thymus, Pineal, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Small Intestine, Stomach, Testes, Ovaries, Kidneys, Heart

  • Functions:

    • Long-term control system of the body

    • Regulates growth, reproduction, and nutrient use among other things.

Cardiovascular system

Cardiovascular System

  • Structures:

    • Heart, Blood vessels (arteries, veins, and capillaries)

  • Functions:

    • The heart pumps blood thru the blood vessels.

    • Blood provides the transport medium for nutrients (glucose, amino acids, lipids), gases (O2, CO2), wastes (urea, creatinine), signaling molecules (hormones), and heat.

Lymphatic immune system

Lymphatic/Immune System

  • Structures:

    • Lymphatic vessels, Lymph nodes, Spleen, Thymus, Red bone marrow

  • Functions:

    • Returning “leaked” fluid back to the bloodstream

    • Disposal of debris

    • Attacking and resisting foreign invaders (pathogens i.e., disease-causing organisms)

    • Absorption of fat from the digestive tract

Respiratory system

Respiratory System

  • Structures:

    • Nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs

  • Functions:

    • Constantly supply the blood with O2, and remove CO2

    • Regulate blood pH

Digestive system

Digestive System

  • Structures:

    • Oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, gallbladder

  • Functions:

    • Ingestion and subsequent breakdown of food into absorbable units that will enter the blood for distribution to the body’s cells

Urinary system

Urinary System

  • Structures:

    • Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder,


  • Functions:

    • Removal of nitrogenous wastes

    • Regulation of body’s levels of water, electrolytes, and acidity

Reproductive system

Reproductive System

  • Structures:

    • Male:

      • Testes, scrotum, epididymis, vas deferens, urethra, prostate gland, seminal vesicles, penis

    • Female:

      • Ovary, uterine tube, uterus, cervix, vagina, mammary glands

  • Functions:

    • Making Babies

Lab activity 3

Lab Activity 3

The Microscope

Care of the microscope

Care of the Microscope

  • When transporting microscope, hold in upright position with one hand on the arm and the other supporting the base

  • Only use lens paper to clean the lens. NEVER USE KIMWIPES.

  • Always begin the focusing process with the lowest-power objective and change to higher-power lenses as necessary.

    • Use fine focus only for adjustment

  • Use coarse adjustment knob only with the lowest power objective lens

  • Always use a coverslip with temporary preparations

Putting microscope away

Putting Microscope Away

  • Remove slides from stage and place in appropriate place

  • Rotate the lowest-power objective lens into position

  • Move stage to the lowest position

  • Turn down light brightness

  • Turn off power

  • Wipe microscope (not the lens) with Kimwipes or alcohol wipe if needed

  • Wrap the cord neatly around the base

  • Lock the cabinet

The end

The End

The End

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