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Lab Activity 1. Language of Anatomy Martini Chapter 1. Portland Community College BI 231. Anatomy. Gross anatomy : the study of body structures visible to the naked eye (without a microscope) Microscopic anatomy: Cytology : Analysis of the internal structures of individual cells

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Lab activity 1

Lab Activity 1

Language of Anatomy

Martini Chapter 1

Portland Community College

BI 231


Anatomy
Anatomy

  • Gross anatomy: the study of body structures visible to the naked eye (without a microscope)

  • Microscopic anatomy:

    • Cytology: Analysis of the internal structures of individual cells

    • Histology: examination of tissues (groups of specialized cells that work together to perform a specific function.


Anatomical position

Anytime you describe structures relative to one another, you must assume this standard position:

Body erect

Feet slightly apart

Palms facing forward

Thumbs point away from body

Anatomical Position


Anterior landmarks
Anterior must assume this standard position:Landmarks


Posterior landmarks
Posterior must assume this standard position:Landmarks


Anatomical locations
Anatomical Locations must assume this standard position:

  • Abdominal: abdominal region

  • Acromial: the point of the shoulder

  • Antebrachial: forearm

  • Antecubital: anterior surface of the elbow

  • Axillary: armpit

  • Brachial: upper arm

  • Buccal: cheek of the face

  • Calcaneal: heel of the foot

  • Carpal: wrist

  • Cephalic: head


Anatomical locations1
Anatomical Locations must assume this standard position:

  • Cervical: neck

  • Deltoid: round part of the shoulder

  • Digital: fingers and toes

  • Dorsum: back

  • Femoral: thigh

  • Frontal: forehead

  • Gluteal: buttocks

  • Hallux: big toe

  • Inguinal: groin

  • Lumbar: lower back

  • Mammary: breast


Anatomical locations2
Anatomical Locations must assume this standard position:

  • Mental: chin

  • Nasal: Nose

  • Occipital: base of the skull

  • Olecranal: elbow

  • Oral: mouth

  • Orbital: bony eye socket

  • Otic: ear

  • Palmar: palm of hand

  • Patellar: Kneecap

  • Pedal: Foot


Anatomical locations3
Anatomical Locations must assume this standard position:

  • Pelvic: pelvis region

  • Perineal: area between anus and external genitals

  • Plantar: sole of foot

  • Pollex: thumb

  • Popliteal: behind the knee

  • Pubic: genital region

  • Sacral: lower back between the hips

  • Scapular: shoulder blade

  • Tarsal: ankle

  • Thoracic: chest

  • Vertebral: spine


Body orientation and direction

These are relative positions must assume this standard position:

Proximal/distal

Used to describe locations on the arms and legs

GI tract

Medial/lateral

Medial is closer to the midline

Farther away from the midline

Body Orientationand Direction


Body orientation and direction1

Dorsal must assume this standard position:: Back

Ventral: Front

Superior or Cephalad is toward the head

Inferior or Caudal is toward the feet

Anterior: most forward

Posterior: toward the backside

Body Orientation and Direction


Planes of the body
Planes of the Body must assume this standard position:


Dorsal body cavity

Dorsal cavity protects the nervous system must assume this standard position:

Contains Brain and Spinal Cord

Dorsal Body Cavity


Cavities

Thoracic Cavity must assume this standard position:

Heart & Lungs

Subdivided into the mediastinum and plural cavities

Lower border is the diaphragm

Abdominal Cavity

Stomach, Liver, Intestines

Pelvic Cavity

Reproductive organs Bladder, Rectum

Cavities


Serous membranes
Serous Membranes must assume this standard position:

  • Serous Membranes have two layers

    • Parietal serosa lines internal body walls

    • Visceral serosa covers the internal organs

    • Serous fluid separates the serosae


Serous membranes1
Serous Membranes must assume this standard position:


Serous membranes of the heart
Serous Membranes of the Heart must assume this standard position:


Quadrants

RUQ must assume this standard position:

Liver

LUQ

Spleen

RLQ

Appendix

LLQ

Sigmoid colon

Quadrants


Abdominopelvic regions
Abdominopelvic must assume this standard position: Regions


Lab activity 2

Lab Activity 2 must assume this standard position:

Organ Systems

Martini Chapter 1, Pages 9-10


Integumentary system
Integumentary System must assume this standard position:

  • Structures: Skin, hair, sweat and oil glands

  • Function:

    • Forms external body covering

    • Protects deeper tissues from injury

    • Involved in vitamin D synthesis

    • Prevents desiccation, heat loss, and pathogen entry

    • Site of pain and pressure receptors


Skeletal system
Skeletal System must assume this standard position:

  • Structure: 206 bones of the human body

  • Function:

    • Protects and supports body organs

    • Provides a framework that muscles can use to create movement

    • Hematopoiesis (synthesis of blood cells)

    • Mineral storage

      • Bone contains 99% of the body’s store of calcium


Muscular system
Muscular System must assume this standard position:

  • Structures: The 600+ muscles of the body

  • Function:

    • Locomotion

    • Manipulation of the environment

    • Maintaining posture

    • Thermogenesis (generation of heat)


Nervous system
Nervous System must assume this standard position:

  • Structures: Brain, Spinal cord,

    and peripheral nerves.

  • Function:

    • Fast-acting control system of the body

    • Monitoring of the internal and external environment and responding (when necessary) by initiating muscular or glandular activity

    • Information Assessment


Endocrine system
Endocrine System must assume this standard position:

  • Structures: Hormone Secreting Glands

    • Pituitary, Thyroid, Thymus, Pineal, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Small Intestine, Stomach, Testes, Ovaries, Kidneys, Heart

  • Functions:

    • Long-term control system of the body

    • Regulates growth, reproduction, and nutrient use among other things.


Cardiovascular system
Cardiovascular System must assume this standard position:

  • Structures:

    • Heart, Blood vessels (arteries, veins, and capillaries)

  • Functions:

    • The heart pumps blood thru the blood vessels.

    • Blood provides the transport medium for nutrients (glucose, amino acids, lipids), gases (O2, CO2), wastes (urea, creatinine), signaling molecules (hormones), and heat.


Lymphatic immune system
Lymphatic/Immune System must assume this standard position:

  • Structures:

    • Lymphatic vessels, Lymph nodes, Spleen, Thymus, Red bone marrow

  • Functions:

    • Returning “leaked” fluid back to the bloodstream

    • Disposal of debris

    • Attacking and resisting foreign invaders (pathogens i.e., disease-causing organisms)

    • Absorption of fat from the digestive tract


Respiratory system
Respiratory System must assume this standard position:

  • Structures:

    • Nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs

  • Functions:

    • Constantly supply the blood with O2, and remove CO2

    • Regulate blood pH


Digestive system
Digestive System must assume this standard position:

  • Structures:

    • Oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, gallbladder

  • Functions:

    • Ingestion and subsequent breakdown of food into absorbable units that will enter the blood for distribution to the body’s cells


Urinary system
Urinary System must assume this standard position:

  • Structures:

    • Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder,

      urethra

  • Functions:

    • Removal of nitrogenous wastes

    • Regulation of body’s levels of water, electrolytes, and acidity


Reproductive system
Reproductive System must assume this standard position:

  • Structures:

    • Male:

      • Testes, scrotum, epididymis, vas deferens, urethra, prostate gland, seminal vesicles, penis

    • Female:

      • Ovary, uterine tube, uterus, cervix, vagina, mammary glands

  • Functions:

    • Making Babies


Lab activity 3

Lab Activity 3 must assume this standard position:

The Microscope


Care of the microscope
Care of the Microscope must assume this standard position:

  • When transporting microscope, hold in upright position with one hand on the arm and the other supporting the base

  • Only use lens paper to clean the lens. NEVER USE KIMWIPES.

  • Always begin the focusing process with the lowest-power objective and change to higher-power lenses as necessary.

    • Use fine focus only for adjustment

  • Use coarse adjustment knob only with the lowest power objective lens

  • Always use a coverslip with temporary preparations


Putting microscope away
Putting Microscope Away must assume this standard position:

  • Remove slides from stage and place in appropriate place

  • Rotate the lowest-power objective lens into position

  • Move stage to the lowest position

  • Turn down light brightness

  • Turn off power

  • Wipe microscope (not the lens) with Kimwipes or alcohol wipe if needed

  • Wrap the cord neatly around the base

  • Lock the cabinet


The end
The End must assume this standard position:

The End


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