SUPER’S MODEL OF THE CAREER DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN
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SUPER’S MODEL OF THE CAREER DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN Curiosity : Desire for knowledge or something new or unusual Exploration : Act of searching or examining Key Figures : Adults are important role models Parents, teachers, public figures are examples

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Super s model of the career development of children curiosity

SUPER’S MODEL OF THE CAREER DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN

Curiosity:

Desire for knowledge or something new or unusual

Exploration:

Act of searching or examining

Key Figures:

Adults are important role models

Parents, teachers, public figures are examples

Significant method of learning for children is imitation

Internal versus External Control:

Children begin to experience a feeling of control over their own surroundings

they begin to develop a feeling of autonomy and of being in control of future events


Super s model of the career development of children curiosity

Development of Interests:

Fantasies of occupations are affected by information about the world, and they become interests.

Encouraging children’s emerging interests is helpful in the development of their career maturity.

Time Perspective:

Developing a sense of future

Unrealistic to ask children (especially below 4th grade) to think about planning future vocational training

Self-concept and Planfulness:

Sense of self begins to emerge in late childhood or early adolescence


Information

Information:

Piaget: major periods of cognitive development

  • Sensorimotor (birth – 2): infants attend to objects and events around them and then respond to these objects and events

    • Attending – sensory acts of touching, seeing, smelling, etc.

    • Responding – motor acts such as biting, hitting, screaming, etc.

  • Preoperational (2 – 7): learn to add and subtract, egocentric, young children cannot tell fantasy from reality

  • Concrete operational (7 – 11): Children think in concrete terms, they do not have to see an object to imagine manipulating it, but they must be aware that it exists

  • Formal operational (12 – beyond): think abstractly


Using super s model in counseling children

USING SUPER’S MODEL IN COUNSELING CHILDREN

  • Typical elementary school guidance problems

  • _Lack of academic progress

  • _Dyslexia

  • _Lack of reading achievement

  • _Problems with sight, hearing, or ability

  • Typical family problems

  • _Child abuse

  • _Child neglect

  • _Issues arising from single parent families

  • _Divorce

  • _Unwed parents

  • _Stepfamilies

  • _Working parents


Gottfredson s theory of circumscription compromise and self creation

GOTTFREDSON’S THEORY OF CIRCUMSCRIPTION, COMPROMISE, AND SELF-CREATION

  • A life-stage theory of career development in childhood and adolescence that emphasizes the importance of gender and prestige in making decisions (this gender and prestige emphasis is generally not in any other theories).


Gottfredson s theory of circumscription compromise and self creation1

GOTTFREDSON’S THEORY OF CIRCUMSCRIPTION, COMPROMISE, AND SELF-CREATION

  • Socialization theory - biological factors become less and less important as individuals age.

  • Modern nature-nurture partnership theory - both biological and environmental factors influence each other and continue to do so throughout the life of the individual.

  • Niches - life settings and roles that individuals occupy.

  • Similar to other theorists, Gottfredson’s theory includes intelligence, vocational interest, competencies, and values.


Circumscription

Circumscription

  • - The idea that various factors limit career choices at different ages.

  • The progressive elimination of unacceptable alternatives, leaving acceptable alternatives

  • The prediction that gender will influence occupational preferences from the age of 6 and up and prestige will influence preferences at 9 and up

  • Choices are circumscribed or limited


Gottfredson s four stages of cognitive development

GOTTFREDSON’S Four stages of cognitive development

  • 1. 3 – 5 years old: orientation to size and power

    • Children grasp the idea of becoming an adult by orienting themselves to the size difference between themselves and adults

  • 2. 6 – 8 years old: orientation to gender roles

    • Become aware of the different gender roles of men and women

    • Their careers choices are influenced by their view of gender roles

  • 3. 9 – 13 years old: affected by abstract ideas of social class

    • Prestige becomes an important factor in career choice


Gottfredson s four stages of cognitive development1

GOTTFREDSON’S Four stages of cognitive development

  • 4. 14 years old and older: orientation to the Internal Unique Self;

    • Adolescents become more introspective and develop greater self-awareness and perceptiveness toward others

    • Develop a more insightful view of vocational aspirations as they are affected by the view of themselves, gender roles, and prestige


Compromise

Compromise:

  • the necessity of an individual to modify his or her career choices because of the reality of limiting environmental factors such as a competitive job market or not having sufficient academic performance to enter an academic program

  • May have to accept less attractive careers

  • Concerns the prediction that the earlier a stage occurs, the more resistant it will be to change and the less willing an individual will be to compromise on issues related to that stage

  • Gender type, prestige, and interest will be compromised (or sacrificed) in such a way that, when making a change in career choice, individuals will give up their interests first, then prestige, and then gender type.

  • This hypothesis deals with why women have a hard time considering non-traditional careers.


Super s model of the career development of children curiosity

Gottfredson is consistent with the importance of career exploration unrestricted by gender-role stereotyping.

  • Thus, children should be able to EXPLORE.

  • Schools should provide non-gender –stereotyping material so that children can gather INFORMATION.

  • Schools are more likely then to provide an atmosphere that promotes a variety of INTERESTS.

  • If exploration and information are not gender-biased, the selection of KEY FIGURES is also more likely to be unbiased.

  • These concepts will eventually affect the child’s SELF-CONCEPT and ability to make career choices.


Career development for children of culturally diverse backgrounds

CAREER DEVELOPMENT FOR CHILDREN OF CULTURALLY DIVERSE BACKGROUNDS

  • Research suggests that African American and Hispanic children may be impeded in their exposure to exploratory activities in finding information that would enhance their development.

  • Counselors should provide the same opportunities for all children.


The role of occupational information

THE ROLE OF OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION

  • School-to-Work – provision of occupational information through the educational system.

    • 1. Infusion of occupational information into the classroom through films, oral reports on occupations, or development of interest centers in class

    • 2. Less formal approach includes group activities such as skits using terms from the world of work, crossword puzzles with work terms, comparing lists of interests, abilities, and achievements with requirements of occupations

    • 3. Community involvement, field trips


Experiential career guidance model

Experiential Career Guidance Model

  • Activities designed for preschool children

  • Sensitive to children’s limited time perspective

  • Activities focus on the family and home, such as a play store or library


The role of assessment instruments

THE ROLE OF ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENTS

A few inventories for children, such as

  • Holland’s Self-Directed Search (Form E),

  • Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI),

  • Children’s Personality Questionnaire


Counselor issues

COUNSELOR ISSUES

  • Great gap between the developmental stage of children and that of counselors.


Assignment

Assignment

  • Write a 2 to 3 page paper which integrates Super’s model of career development of children with Gottredson’s Theory of Circumscription, compromise, and self-creation.

  • Illustrate your analysis with an aspect or portion of your own childhood history which you view as a turning point in your view of your future.


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