Genetically Modified Organisms (Transgenics) – “ The Right to Know”. Princeton Satellite 2013 Kathy McKone. What does it mean to be genetically modified?. Inserting a desired gene from one organism into an organism of a different species. WHY Bother w/ GM Food?.
Princeton Satellite 2013
Inserting a desired gene from one organism into an organism of a different species.
General GMO: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jAP6ZtfP9ZQ
Genetically Engineering Insulin
US Approval for GM food crops
Approval does not necessarily mean these crops are distributed
Database of GM crops: www.agbios.com
Inserting genes from one organism (Bacteria) into another organism (Plant).
Adding genes to plants can make them draught or insect resistant.
1994: first GM food was sold: Flavr Savr tomato = able to ripen on the vine & not turn to mush; wasn’t successful b/c of taste
Image:Results of insect infestation on Bt (right) and non-Bt (left) cotton bolls. Source: USDAAgriculture: Genetically Modified (GM) Organisms
Sources: 1996-1999 Fernandez and McBride, 2000-2004: USDA, National Agriculture Statistics Service, Acreage.
*Monsanto, Pesticide Companies Spend $7.1 Million to Defeat Right to Know GMO Labeling Measure in CA
1) Promoter = found at the beginning of a gene; docking site of RNA polymerase
2) Gene = codes for protein of interest (pest resistance)
3)Terminator = stop transcriptionCell Biology REVIEW:Three Segments of a Gene
CaMV 35S – Sequence for the promoter of 35S transcript of the Cauliflower mosaic virus.
Used because it functions in every plant cell
NOS- Sequence fornopaline synthase terminator from soil bacterium Agrobacterium tumefacians
Used because it evolved to be recognized in most plants
65% of food crops use CaMV promoter; adding NOS detection ~ 85%
The Cauliflower Mosaic Virus promoter (CaMV 35S) is used in most transgenic crops to activate foreign genes which have been artificially inserted into the host plant
http://www.microbiologyonline.org.uk/graphics/bluetong.gifMost Used Promoter used in GM crops
University of Nebraska
http://www.greenpeace.orgGMO-Based Web Sites
Not Included but required: