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Section 5.3. Electron Configurations. Electron Configurations. Atom is in the ground state 3 rules or laws Aufbau principle Pauli Exclusion principle Hund’s Law. Aufbau Principle. Electrons occupy lowest energy orbital available All orbitals of a sublevel are equal energy

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Section 5.3

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Section 5.3

Electron Configurations


Electron Configurations

  • Atom is in the ground state

  • 3 rules or laws

    • Aufbau principle

    • Pauli Exclusion principle

    • Hund’s Law


Aufbau Principle

  • Electrons occupy lowest energy orbital available

    • All orbitals of a sublevel are equal energy

    • Sublevels have different energies

      • s < p < d <f

    • Orbitals within one principal energy level can overlap orbitals of another


Electron Filling Order

Which orbital will fill first, 4s or 3d?


Periodic Table Helps!


Pauli Exclusion Principle

  • Maximum of 2 electrons in an orbital, but only if they have opposite spin.


Hund’s rule

  • Electrons with same spin must occupy each equal energy orbital before additional electrons with opposite spins can occupy the same orbital.


Orbital Filling Order

1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s

3d 4p 5s 4d 5p 6s

4f 5d 6p 7s 5f 6d 7p


Electron Configurations

  • Three methods

    1. Electron Configuration Notation

    2. Noble Gas Notation

    3. Orbital Diagrams


Electron Configuration Notation

  • Ex: N

    • # of electrons?

  • Start with the lowest energy, fill to capacity, go to next lowest energy, etc. Stop when you run out of electrons.

    • Superscripts = total electrons


Electron Configuration Notation

  • You try … Zinc


Electron Configuration Notation

1s2 2s22p6 3s23p6 4s23d10


Assignment

  • Write the electron configuration notation for the following elements:

    • Boron (B), Neon (Ne), Sulfur (S), Magnesium (Mg), Vanadium (V), Silver (Ag)


Noble Gas Notation

  • Shorthand

    • Find the noble gas closest to the element (without going over).

    • Ex: For Gold (79): Xenon (54)

    • We write [Xe] and start counting from there

    • The first orbital after xenon is 6s


Noble Gas Notation

  • [Xe]6s2 4f14 5d9

  • Check: (Xe’s atomic number) 54 + 2 + 14 + 9 = 79 (gold’s Atomic number)!


You Try…

  • Silver


Assignment

  • P.147 #79


Orbital Diagrams

  • Draw a line for each orbital

  • Designate each electron with an arrow

    • = orbital with 1 electron

    • = orbital with 2 electrons


Orbital Diagrams

  • Nitrogen: 1s22s22p3

    • Write notation of N

    • Then we fill them with electrons using the Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principle, and Hund’s law


Orbital Diagrams

  • You try another example: Cu


Orbital Diagrams

  • Answer


Assignment

  • Draw orbital diagrams for beryllium, aluminum, nitrogen, and sodium, manganese, germanium, and europium.


Electron Dot Structures

  • Valence electrons

    • Electrons in outermost energy level.

    • Responsible for chemical properties


Electron Dot Structures

  • Valence electrons only

  • Place ‘dots’ around element symbol

  • 4 sides of element = orbitals

  • Fill these orbitals one at a time (Hund’s)


Electron Dot Structures


Assignment

  • P.141 #23(yellow box), 26, 28

  • P.147 #81


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