Plans for Linear Collider Calorimetry Test Beam Work at Fermilab
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Plans for Linear Collider Calorimetry Test Beam Work at Fermilab. Andy White for U.S.+European-CALICE and other collaborators. Physics motivation/need. Unprecedented requirement for new level of hadron/jet energy resolution /E ~ 30%/E - Separation of W/Z in hadronic mode:. 60%/ E.

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Plans for Linear Collider Calorimetry Test Beam Work at Fermilab

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Plans for Linear Collider Calorimetry Test Beam Work at Fermilab

Andy White


U.S.+European-CALICE and other collaborators

Physics motivation/need

  • Unprecedented requirementfor new level of hadron/jet energy resolution /E ~ 30%/E

  • - Separation of W/Z in hadronic mode:



How do we achieve this resolution?

  • Particle Flow Algorithm approach

  • High granularity calorimeter (transverse + longitudinal)

  • Use excellent Pt resolution of tracker for charged tracks, measure photon energies in Ecal, and Ecal + Hcal to measure neutral hadron energies:

Critical Point !

PFA(s) development relies on MC detector simulation

=> MUST be able to verify MC Calorimeter response over the ranges of energies required and at high spatial resolution:

Comparison of the shower radius in a hadronic calorimeter as predicted by fifteen different MC models of hadronic showers

Goals of Calorimeter Test Beam Program

Test MC modeling of detector response

Test detector technologies

Fermilab – Meson Test Beam Facility

From E.Ramberg/LCWS 2004 Paris

Fermilab – MTBF proton beam

From E.Ramberg/LCWS 2004 Paris

From E.Ramberg/LCWS 2004 Paris

From E.Ramberg/LCWS 2004 Paris

One of the two beamline Cerenkov counters

One of three MWPC stations

Remote controlled scintillator finger counters

Silicon tracker

Operational Characteristics

  • There are several operational modes:

    • Proton Mode:Tune beamline for 120 GeV protons that get transmitted through the target. Rates at the user area are limited to 1 Mhz. Maximum rates so far are 200 KHz.

    • Secondary, or ‘Pion’ Mode:Vary the tune of the beamline according to the momentum desired. Maximum momentum is currently 66 GeV, with rates on the order of 10 kHz. Lowest momentum tune is on the order of 3-5 GeV. (See graph of calculated rates)

    • Muons: By inserting a beam stop upstream, muons of tagged momentum less than 66 GeV can be delivered to both areas. By inserting the beam stop between the two user areas, muons of indeterminate momentum can be delivered to the downstream area. The former mode has not been tested. The latter mode has delivered 100 Hz of muons to the user area.

    • Electrons: At low momentum (< 5 GeV), the beamline delivers an enhanced electron fraction, at very low rates. There are intermediate target wheels and sweepers to attempt production of an electron beam at higher momentum. This mode has not been tested yet.

  • Fast extraction delivers from 20-80 buckets of 20 nsec duration. Each bucket has ~ 500 particles. Can insert beamstop to reduce rate to 0.5 particle/bucket.

  • Resonant extraction delivers ‘smooth’ beam over .4 sec spill. Spill can be made shorter – down to 10 or 20 msec – thus making more intense beam.

  • Spot sizes can be made as small as 3-5 mm square (with 120 GeV protons) and as large as 5 cm square.

From E.Ramberg/LCWS 2004 Paris

Components to be tested

  • Electromagnetic Calorimeter

  • Hadron Calorimeter

  • Integrated “tail-catcher” + muon system

Electromagnetic calorimeters

Note: Low energy e- tests planned at DESY late 2004

Silicon – Tungsten


Scintillator – Tungsten

U.Colorado, Japan

Hybrid technologies (Si/Scint with W or Pb)

European (Como, Warsaw, LNF, Padova, Trieste)

Kansas/Kansas State

Hadron Calorimeters



Pick-up pads





Resistive plates

Digital Hadron

GEM-Steel UTA, U.Washington, +…

RPC-Steel ANL,BU, Chicago, FNAL, Iowa

Muon Detector/Tail Catchers

Scintillator-Steel US-European

RPC Frascati

Asian participation

  • Most of the linear collider test beam activities planned at Fermilab so far involve U.S. and European groups.

  • We would like to invite participation by more of our Asian colleagues.

  • The coordinator of test beam work is Jae Yu from the University of Texas at Arlington:

    [email protected]

Proposed test beam program


e-- energy scans, 5 – 10 points (inc. DESY overlap)

- incident angle, ~3 points

- hadron showers in ECal

HCal and Tail-catcher

, p – energy scans, 1-66 GeV ( p -> 120 GeV)

- incident angle scans

-  - for tracking studies

CALICE HCAL movable test stand

  • Holds ECal + HCal + TC

  • 3-dimensional variation

Proposed test beam program

Combined runs (ECal + HCal + TC):

e-- energy scans, 5 – 10 points

, p – energy scans, 1-66 GeV ( p -> 120 GeV)

 - tracking and calibration

7 – 12/2005

1 – 6/2006

7 – 12/2006

1 – 6/2007

7 – 12/2007




Other ECALs







Other HCALs




Combined tests







Schedule of proposed activities


  • A test beam program to study showering in high granularity calorimetry and test new technologies is critically important for LC calorimetery.

  • Fermilab Meson Test Beam Facility is ready and available for LC calorimeter prototype tests.

  • Beam and other facility upgrades are being requested.

  • Several years of testing are foreseen and wider participation is actively encouraged!

Facility Detectors

  • Two beamline threshold Cerenkov counters can be operated independently for good particle i.d. (50’ and 80’ long)

  • Two stations of X,Y silicon strip detectors are installed.

  • Three 0.5 mm pitch MWPC into DAQ + Three 1.0 mm pitch MWPC into the accelerator ACNET control system.

  • DAQ will be minimum bias triggered during the spill. The data from scintillators, Cerenkov counters, silicon and MWPC go into event buffers. Buffers are read out during and after the spill and this data will be accessible to experimenters.

From E.Ramberg/LCWS 2004 Paris

Predicted maximum rates in MT6 as a function of momentum for pions and protons



List of MTBF Memoranda of

Understanding (MOU):

T926: RICE- Took data in Feb.

T927: BTeV Pixel- Taking data in Spring

T930: BTeV Straw- Taking data in Spring

T931: BTeV Muon- Install over Summer

T932: Diamond Detector- Taking data in Spring

T933: BTeV ECAL - Install over Summer

T935: BTeV RICH- Install over Summer

T936: US/CMS Pixel- Taking data in Spring

Status of Fermilab Test Beam

  • Several experiments have taken data or are currently doing so. Other experiments will be installing in the summer.

  • 120 Gev, 66 GeV and 33 GeV beams have been delivered. Both fast extraction and slow spill have been tested.

  • A low-rate, broad-band muon beam has been established

  • Tracking and DAQ near completion

    • Either fast spill (0.4-1.6 msec) or slow spill (.02-.6 sec)

    • Typical operation of 1 spill/minute. Can request higher rates.

    • ~50 K protons/spill at 120 GeV

    • ~3 K secondary beam/spill at 66 GeV

    • Lower momenta will give lower rates

    • Muon filters decrease beam by ~10-3

    • Beam spot sizes of ~3 mm square at 120 GeV

Summary of Operational Characteristics

} (Beam rates have improved x5 since these results)

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