METR 112 Global Climate Change
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METR 112 Global Climate Change Professor Menglin Susan Jin San Jose State University, Dept of Meteorology and Climate Science. www.met.sjsu.edu/~jin. January 22, 201 4. Outline of today’s lecture Introduction and Welcome Discussion on the “greensheet” Learning Contract

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METR 112 Global Climate Change

Professor Menglin Susan Jin

San Jose State University, Dept of Meteorology and Climate Science

www.met.sjsu.edu/~jin

January 22, 2014


  • Outline of today’s lecture

  • Introduction and Welcome

  • Discussion on the “greensheet”

  • Learning Contract

  • First glance on observations of Changing Climate


For greensheet, class ppt notes

http://www.met.sjsu.edu/~jin/METR112spring2014.htm

NOT any other websites!


About Professor

A very good scholar www.met.sjsu.edu/~jin

1.

Research projects: funded by NASA, NSF, Department of Defense

On land surface climate change, urbanization, remote sensing

20+ leading author papers on top journals

2. an effective teacher

  • Teaching philosophy: teaching is your responsibility,

  • but a good professor makes things so easy for you


Goal

METR112 will help you to know the fundamentals of

global climate system,

climate change,

and gain appreciation of the complexities involved with climate change issues

Being educated in Climate Change Issue


Homework: 20%

Midterm Exam: 20%

Class Participation 5%

Group Project: 20%

Final Exam: 35%

Scale: 90+ A, 80’s B, 70’s C, 60’s D, <60 F

Homework will be assigned on in class

Submitted on time via canvas.


  • Content

  • 1. Knowledge on Climate System:

    • Atmosphere Structure

    • Land Surface Properties

    • Land-Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction

    • Global Energy Balance

    • Global Hydrological Cycle

    • C cycle

    • Glacier

    • Aerosols and clouds

    • Ozone

  • 2. Past Climate Change

  • 3. Recent Climate Change

  • 4. Climate Modeling – Its basics and Uncertainty

  • 5. Climate Feedback

  • 6. Urban Climate Change – Land Cover Change and Human Impacts

  • 7. Climate Change and Human Health

  • 8. Remaining Questions on Global Climate Change Research

  • 9. 10 Things You can do to Fight Climate Change


  • Lecture Hour:

    METR112-01: TTH 10:30 -11:45 AM

    METR112-03: TTH 1:30 PM – 2:45 PM

    Place: DH515

    Office Hour:

    12:30 PM -1:20 PM, TH

    more (set via email)

    Place: MSJ’s Office (DH613)

    TA: TBD

    TA’s office: TBD

    METR112

    • I will meet with you for extra office hour whenever you need.

    • send email for appointment.

    I am approachable!!!


    References (not a text book):

    (cheap!)

    “Understanding Weather & Climate” by

    Edward Aguado and James E. Burt (Third Edition)

    Video collections: http://www.met.sjsu.edu/metr112-videos/

    Useful materials will be assigned on webpage/homework/class


    Learning contract
    Learning Contract

    • Instructor

      • On time and prepared.

      • Answers questions.

      • Approachable and friendly.

      • Fair with assignments and grades.

      • Genuinely concerned about your learning and intellectual development.


    Learning contract1
    Learning Contract

    • Students

      • Make every effort to arrive on time; and if late, enter class quietly.

      • Preserve a good classroom learning environment by

        a) refraining from talking when other people are talking

        b) turning off cell phones.

      • Be courteous to other students and the instructor.

      • Aware that learning is primarily their responsibility.

      • Aware of universities policy on academic integrity and pledge to abide by them at all times.

      • Have read and understand what plagiarism is and know how to cite sources properly.


    Academic integrity
    Academic Integrity

    • Integrity of university, its courses and degrees relies on academic standards.

    • Cheating:

      • Copying from another’s test, cheatsheet etc.

      • Sitting an exam by, or as, a surrogate.

      • Submitting work for another

    • Plagiarism:

      • Representing the work of another as one’s own (without giving appropriate credit)


    Plagiarism
    Plagiarism

    • Judicial Affairs

      http://sa.sjsu.edu/judicial_affairs/index.html

    • Look at the Student Code of Conduct

    • Read through SJSU library site on Plagiarism

      http://www.sjlibrary.org/services/literacy/info_comp/plagiarism.htm

    • http://turnitin.com/


    Greensheet see handout
    GreenSheet (see handout)

    • Homework mustonline turnin (canvas)

    • Class Participation

    • Research Project

    • Final grade




    July 21 2012 beijing
    July 21, 2012, Beijing

    the heaviest rainfall in 61 years fell on the Chinese capital city of Beijing on July 21, 2012. The state news agency Xinhua at first said that 37 people had been killed by floods during and after the downpour, but today (July 26, 2012) the official death toll was raised to 77


    Extreme to 200mm

    Affect 1.9million people, 10 billons $ damage


    A car moves on the rain-inundated road

    in the Daxing District of Beijing, capital of China, July 21, 2012.


    Mechanisms for extreme rainfall over bj why beijing why now
    Mechanisms for extreme rainfall over BJ: Why Beijing? Why Now?

    Urban landscape enhance rainfall via three processes:

    Aerosol-cloud interactions

    UHI

    Canyon effect

    Knowledge abut climate sysetm and climate change is needed


    Change in surface temperature in 20th century


    Two main points in this figure
    Two main points in this figure

    • Globalmean surface temperatures have increased 0.5-1.0°C since the late 19th century

    • The 20th century's 10 warmest years all occurred in the last 15 years of the century

    Note: 1. why is global mean?

    2. what is surface air temperature? (see next few slides)


    Temperature is measured

    by

    therometer

    Thermoeter is required by WMO (see next slide)


    World Meteorological Organization (WMO) http://www.wmo.int/pages/index_en.html

    Weather station

    http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Image:Translational-motion.gif


    Observed temperature changes http://www.wmo.int/pages/index_en.html

    Warming

    due to El Niño

    1992-93

    Cooling due to

    Mt. Pinatubo

    Cooling

    due to La Niño


    • Global http://www.wmo.int/pages/index_en.htmlmean surface temperatures have increased 0.5-1.0°C since the late 19th century

    • The 20th century's 10 warmest years all occurred in the last 15 years of the century

    Why does this matter? (important!)

    • Such an increase continues. The best scientific estimate is that

    • global mean temperature will increase between 1.4 and 5.8 degrees C

    • over the next century as a result of increases in atmospheric CO2and

    • other greenhouse gases. This kind of increase in global temperature

    • would cause significant rise in average sea-level (0.09-0.88 meters),

    • and other severe consequences

    • Mean increase means that many regions increases much higher, and these regions

    • have problems in terms of extreme heat, drought, flood.


    1979 http://www.wmo.int/pages/index_en.html

    2003


    The land and oceans have both warmed but
    The Land and Oceans have both warmed, but… http://www.wmo.int/pages/index_en.html


    Important point of this slide
    Important point of this slide http://www.wmo.int/pages/index_en.html

    • Although global mean surface has been warming up, for each region the change can be different! (can be no change, warming, or cooling)

    Class activity: find out your grandpa’s hometown and see how

    the temperature is changed there?


    Antarctic ice shelves
    Antarctic Ice Shelves http://www.wmo.int/pages/index_en.html

    • Most common Ice Shelf: Giant floating platform of ice formed from glaciers located along coastlines

    • 50-600 meters thick

    • Can last for thousands of years

    • 10 major ice shelves in Antarctica


    Larsen ice shelf break
    Larsen Ice Shelf Break http://www.wmo.int/pages/index_en.html


    Then and now
    Then and Now http://www.wmo.int/pages/index_en.html

    • Temperature rises have also led to the expansion of species ranges in Antarctica.

    • “Long term monitoring of continental Antarctic terrestrial vegetation is crucial for accurate measurement and predictions of vegetation dynamics in response to future temperature regimes around the world”


    Video antarctic wilkins ice shelf collapse
    Video: http://www.wmo.int/pages/index_en.htmlAntarctic Wilkins Ice Shelf Collapse

    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=poKX6OnehTc


    The “Keeling curve,” http://www.wmo.int/pages/index_en.htmla long-term record of atmospheric CO2

    concentration measured at the Mauna Loa Observatory (Keeling et al.).

    Although the annual oscillations represent natural, seasonal variations,

    the long-term increase means that concentrations are higher than

    they have been in 400,000 years.

    Graphic courtesy of NASA’s Earth Observatory.


    Still going up! http://www.wmo.int/pages/index_en.html


    CO http://www.wmo.int/pages/index_en.html2 Unit

    atmospheric concentrations of CO2 in units of parts per million by volume (ppmv).

    Each ppmv represents 2.13 X1015 grams, or 2.13 petagrams of carbon (PgC)

    in the atmosphere

    Atmospheric CO2 concentrations rose from 288 ppmv in 1850 to 369.5 ppmv in 2000,

    for an increase of 81.5 ppmv, or 174 PgC. In other words, about 40% (174/441.5)

    of the additional carbon has remained in the atmosphere,

    while the remaining 60% has been transferred to the oceans and terrestrial biosphere.

    http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/


    Atmosphere Composition and Structure http://www.wmo.int/pages/index_en.html


    Vertical layers of the lower atmosphere
    Vertical Layers of the Lower Atmosphere http://www.wmo.int/pages/index_en.html


    Atmospheric properties vs altitude
    Atmospheric Properties vs. Altitude http://www.wmo.int/pages/index_en.html


    Table 1: Composition of the Atmosphere http://www.wmo.int/pages/index_en.html

    Percentage

    by Volume

    Gas

    Nitrogen 78.08

    Oxygen 20.95

    Argon 0.93

    Trace Gases

    Carbon dioxide 0.038

    Methane 0.00017

    Ozone 0.000004

    Chlorofluorocarbons 0.00000002

    Water vapor Highly variable

    (0-4%)


    Greenhouse gases
    Greenhouse Gases http://www.wmo.int/pages/index_en.html

    • Carbon Dioxide

    • Methane

    • Nitrous Oxide

    • CFCs (Chlorofluorocarbons)

    • Others

    Water vapor is one greenhouse house gas (GHG)

    In fact, it is the most abundant GHG


    The early Greeks considered "air" to be one of four elementary

    substances; along with earth, fire, and water,

    air was viewed as a fundamental component of the universe.

    By the early 1800s, however, scientists such as John Dalton recognized

    that the atmosphere was in fact composed of several chemically distinct gases,

    which he was able to separate and determine the relative amounts of within

    the lower atmosphere. He was easily able to discern the major components

    of the atmosphere: nitrogen, oxygen, and a small amount of something incombustible,

    later shown to be argon. The development of the spectrometer in the 1920s

    allowed scientists to find gases that existed in much smaller concentrations in the

    atmosphere, such as ozone and carbon dioxide. The concentrations of these gases,

    while small, varied widely from place to place. In fact, atmospheric gases

    are often divided up into the major, constant components and the highly

    variable components, as listed below:


    Although both nitrogen and oxygen are essential to human life on the planet,

    they have little effect on weather and other atmospheric processes.

    The variable components, which make up far less than 1 percent of the atmosphere, have a much greater influence on both short-term weather and long-term climate. For example, variations in water vapor in the atmosphere are familiar to us as relative humidity.

    Water vapor (H2O), CO2, CH4, N2O, and SO2all have an important property:

    they absorb heat emitted by the earth and thus warm the atmosphere,

    creating what we call the "greenhouse effect." Without these so-called

    greenhouse gases, the surface of the earth would be about 30 degrees

    Celsius cooler - too cold for life to exist as we know it.

    Global warming, on the other hand, is a separate process that can be caused by increased amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.


    The Greenhouse Effect life on the planet, (Important concept)

    www.eecs.umich.edu/mathscience/funexperiments/agesubject/lessons/images/diagrampage.html


    Greenhouse gases life on the planet, (important!)

    CO2

    CH4

    N2O (Nitrous Oxiode, so called “laughing gas”)

    CFC

    O3

    H2O

    by the early 21st century,

    N2O had become nearly as important a greenhouse gas as methane.

    Their best guess was 0.7°C for N2O, and 0.3°C for methane. Wang et al. (1976).


    atmosphere is life on the planet, not uniform

    • temperature decreased with altitude

    division of the atmosphere into

    layers based on their thermal properties.

    Troposphere: surface to12~18Km

    all weather occurs

    temperature decreases with

    -6.5° C/kilometer (average!)

    Stratosphere: 18-50km

    temperature increase due to

    ultraviolet (UV) absorption

    by Ozone (O3)

    Mesosphere

    50-80km

    Thermosphere

    The outermost layer of the atmosphere,

    where gas molecules split apart into ions.

    http://www.visionlearning.com/library/module_viewer.php?mid=107



    Vertical layers of the lower atmosphere2
    Vertical Layers of the Lower Atmosphere life on the planet,

    Greenhouse

    Gases are here


    Methane
    Methane life on the planet,


    Anthropogenic methane sources
    Anthropogenic Methane Sources life on the planet,

    • Leakage from natural gas pipelines and coal mines

    • Emissions from cattle

    • Emissions from rice paddies


    Nitrous oxide n 2 o
    Nitrous Oxide N life on the planet, 2O


    Anthropogenic sources of nitrous oxide
    Anthropogenic Sources of Nitrous Oxide life on the planet,

    • Agriculture

    • Bacteria in Soils

    • Nitrogen fertilizers


    Cfcs chlorofluorocarbons
    CFCs (Chlorofluorocarbons) life on the planet,

    CFC-11

    CFC-12


    Sources of cfcs
    Sources of CFCs life on the planet,

    • Leakage from old air conditioners and refrigerators

    • Production of CFCs was banned in 1987 because of stratospheric ozone destruction

      • CFC concentrations appear to now be decreasing

      • There are no natural sources of CFCs


    One World life on the planet,


    World Population 6,446,131,400 life on the planet,

    Human activities

    change environment


    Class participation name
    Class Participation life on the planet, Name_________

    1. What is the surface temperature change from 1990 – 2000? Is it consistent with the change of greenhouse gases?

    2. What are greenhouse gases? What is greenhouse effect?


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