METR 112 Global Climate Change Professor Menglin Susan Jin San Jose State University, Dept of Meteorology and Climate Science. www.met.sjsu.edu/~jin. January 22, 201 4. Outline of today’s lecture Introduction and Welcome Discussion on the “greensheet” Learning Contract
Professor Menglin Susan Jin
San Jose State University, Dept of Meteorology and Climate Science
January 22, 2014
NOT any other websites!
A very good scholar www.met.sjsu.edu/~jin
Research projects: funded by NASA, NSF, Department of Defense
On land surface climate change, urbanization, remote sensing
20+ leading author papers on top journals
2. an effective teacher
METR112 will help you to know the fundamentals of
global climate system,
and gain appreciation of the complexities involved with climate change issues
Being educated in Climate Change Issue
Midterm Exam: 20%
Class Participation 5%
Group Project: 20%
Final Exam: 35%
Scale: 90+ A, 80’s B, 70’s C, 60’s D, <60 F
Homework will be assigned on in class
Submitted on time via canvas.
METR112-01: TTH 10:30 -11:45 AM
METR112-03: TTH 1:30 PM – 2:45 PM
12:30 PM -1:20 PM, TH
more (set via email)
Place: MSJ’s Office (DH613)
TA’s office: TBD
I am approachable!!!
“Understanding Weather & Climate” by
Edward Aguado and James E. Burt (Third Edition)
Video collections: http://www.met.sjsu.edu/metr112-videos/
Useful materials will be assigned on webpage/homework/class
a) refraining from talking when other people are talking
b) turning off cell phones.
the heaviest rainfall in 61 years fell on the Chinese capital city of Beijing on July 21, 2012. The state news agency Xinhua at first said that 37 people had been killed by floods during and after the downpour, but today (July 26, 2012) the official death toll was raised to 77
Affect 1.9million people, 10 billons $ damage
in the Daxing District of Beijing, capital of China, July 21, 2012.
Urban landscape enhance rainfall via three processes:
Knowledge abut climate sysetm and climate change is needed
Note: 1. why is global mean?
2. what is surface air temperature? (see next few slides)
Thermoeter is required by WMO (see next slide)
World Meteorological Organization (WMO) http://www.wmo.int/pages/index_en.html
due to El Niño
Cooling due to
due to La Niño
Globalmean surface temperatures have increased 0.5-1.0°C since the late 19th century
Why does this matter? (important!)
Class activity: find out your grandpa’s hometown and see how
the temperature is changed there?
concentration measured at the Mauna Loa Observatory (Keeling et al.).
Although the annual oscillations represent natural, seasonal variations,
the long-term increase means that concentrations are higher than
they have been in 400,000 years.
Graphic courtesy of NASA’s Earth Observatory.
atmospheric concentrations of CO2 in units of parts per million by volume (ppmv).
Each ppmv represents 2.13 X1015 grams, or 2.13 petagrams of carbon (PgC)
in the atmosphere
Atmospheric CO2 concentrations rose from 288 ppmv in 1850 to 369.5 ppmv in 2000,
for an increase of 81.5 ppmv, or 174 PgC. In other words, about 40% (174/441.5)
of the additional carbon has remained in the atmosphere,
while the remaining 60% has been transferred to the oceans and terrestrial biosphere.
Carbon dioxide 0.038
Water vapor Highly variable
Water vapor is one greenhouse house gas (GHG)
In fact, it is the most abundant GHG
substances; along with earth, fire, and water,
air was viewed as a fundamental component of the universe.
By the early 1800s, however, scientists such as John Dalton recognized
that the atmosphere was in fact composed of several chemically distinct gases,
which he was able to separate and determine the relative amounts of within
the lower atmosphere. He was easily able to discern the major components
of the atmosphere: nitrogen, oxygen, and a small amount of something incombustible,
later shown to be argon. The development of the spectrometer in the 1920s
allowed scientists to find gases that existed in much smaller concentrations in the
atmosphere, such as ozone and carbon dioxide. The concentrations of these gases,
while small, varied widely from place to place. In fact, atmospheric gases
are often divided up into the major, constant components and the highly
variable components, as listed below:
Although both nitrogen and oxygen are essential to human life on the planet,
they have little effect on weather and other atmospheric processes.
The variable components, which make up far less than 1 percent of the atmosphere, have a much greater influence on both short-term weather and long-term climate. For example, variations in water vapor in the atmosphere are familiar to us as relative humidity.
Water vapor (H2O), CO2, CH4, N2O, and SO2all have an important property:
they absorb heat emitted by the earth and thus warm the atmosphere,
creating what we call the "greenhouse effect." Without these so-called
greenhouse gases, the surface of the earth would be about 30 degrees
Celsius cooler - too cold for life to exist as we know it.
Global warming, on the other hand, is a separate process that can be caused by increased amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
N2O (Nitrous Oxiode, so called “laughing gas”)
by the early 21st century,
N2O had become nearly as important a greenhouse gas as methane.
Their best guess was 0.7°C for N2O, and 0.3°C for methane. Wang et al. (1976).
division of the atmosphere into
layers based on their thermal properties.
Troposphere: surface to12~18Km
all weather occurs
temperature decreases with
-6.5° C/kilometer (average!)
temperature increase due to
ultraviolet (UV) absorption
by Ozone (O3)
The outermost layer of the atmosphere,
where gas molecules split apart into ions.
Gases are here
1. What is the surface temperature change from 1990 – 2000? Is it consistent with the change of greenhouse gases?
2. What are greenhouse gases? What is greenhouse effect?