HUMAN IMMUNODEFICENCY VIRUS (HIV). INTRODUCTION. HIV VIRUS IS HUMAN IMMUNODEFICENCY VIRUS IT CAUSES (ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICENCY SYNDROME)(AIDS)
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It has two types HIV- 1 AND HIV- 2.
TYPE 1 is highly infectious and causes 90%of the infection globally.
HIV-2 is found in west Africa and confined there
HIV is a retrovirus
It has an enzyme (reverse trancriptase which converts single stranded RNA to double stranded DNA)
It has a coat of fatty material called as viral envelope or capsid
It has 72 little spikELTS projecting from the capsid.
The HIV virus is a retrovirus it has single stranded RNA in its genome and it does not have a complex genome it ois comprised of 9 genes only
Transcription and translation: HIV is a provirus it stays in host genome for a long time .It becomes activated and expressed in the same way as the human genes .the mRNA is used as blue print to make new HIV virus copies viral proteins and enzymes .
Assembly budding and integration: when the cell produces and translates mRNA copies they are the complete copies of HIV material and they gather together with the newly made HIV proteins and enzymes to form new viral proteins which are released from the cell .Enzyme Protease plays an important role in chopping up of DNA strands to make anew viral core. the new vcirions are ready to infect other cells and they grow and mature by body fluids.
Electron Microscope slide showing virus transmission from cell membrane of T helper cell