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Basic Principles of Physical Fitness. Chapter 2. Physical Activity on a Continuum. Physical activity : any body movement carried out by the skeletal muscles and requiring energy Exercise : planned, structured, repetitive movement of the body designed to improve or maintain physical fitness

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Basic Principles of Physical Fitness

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Basic Principles of Physical Fitness

Chapter 2

Physical Activity on a Continuum

  • Physical activity:

    any body movement carried out by the skeletal muscles and requiring energy

  • Exercise:

    planned, structured, repetitive movement of the body designed to improve or maintain physical fitness

  • Physical fitness:

    a set of physical attributes that allows the body to respond or adapt to the demands and stress of physical effort

Physical Activity and Exercise for Health and Fitness

  • Levels of physical activity have declined in recent years and remain low for all Americans

  • The Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported the following:

    • 33% participate in some leisure activity

    • About 28% of Americans report exercising vigorously for 10 minutes 3 times per week.

    • 25% are physically inactive

    • 39% of Americans with graduate degrees exercise compared to only 78% of high school dropouts

Percentage of adult Americans reporting no leisure-time physical activity

Increasing Physical Activity to Improve Health and Wellness

  • 2010: the U.S. Surgeon General issued The Surgeon General’s Vision for a Healthy and Fit Nation.

  • 2008: The U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans recommends the following:

    • 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise, or 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise, per week

    • Increase the volume and intensity of an exercise for more health benefits

    • Healthy adults should do resistive exercises at least twice a week

    • Examples of moderate physical activity:

      • Brisk walking

      • Dancing

      • Swimming

      • Cycling

      • Yard work

    • Example of vigorous exercise: jogging

Moderate Amounts of Physical Activity

Exercise to Develop Physical Fitness

  • Lifestyle physical activity improves health but may not improve fitness

  • A structured, formal exercise program improves physical fitness and provides even greater health improvements

How Much Physical Activity Is Enough?

How Much Physical Activity Is Enough?

  • Moderate-intensity versus high-intensity exercise

  • Continuous versus intermittent exercise

  • Low-intensity exercise improves health but may not be very beneficial for improving physical fitness

Health-related Components of Physical Fitness

  • There are 5 areas of fitness which help establish health benefits

  • Health-related fitness helps you withstand physical challenges and protects you from diseases

  • The 5 components:

    • Cardiorespiratory Fitness

    • Muscular Strength

    • Muscular Endurance

    • Flexibility

    • Body Composition

Cardiorespiratory Fitness

  • Ability to perform prolonged, large muscle, dynamic exercise at moderate to high levels of intensity.

    • Depends on the ability of the lungs to deliver oxygen from the environment to the bloodstream and the efficiency of the heart and nervous system

  • Cardiorespiratory fitness improves:

    • The heart pumps more blood per heartbeat

    • Resting heart rate slows

    • Blood volume increases

    • Blood supply to tissue improves

    • The body can cool itself better

    • Resting blood pressure decreases

    • Metabolism in skeletal muscle is enhanced

    • In older adults, levels of antioxidant chemicals are increased and lowers oxidative stress

  • Cardiorespiratory endurance exercise examples:

    • Walking

    • Jogging

    • Cycling

    • Aerobic dancing

Muscle Strength and Endurance

  • Muscular Strength is the amount of force a muscle can produce in a single maximum effort

  • Muscular Endurance is the ability to resist fatigue and sustain a given level of muscle tension for a given time.

  • Benefits include:

    • Increased body mass

    • Increased metabolism

    • Reduced effects of sarcopenia

    • Increases antioxidant enzymes and lowers oxidative stress in older adults

    • Increased bone density

    • Improved self-confidence and ability to manage stress

    • Improved posture and reduction of low back pain


  • The ability to move the joints through their full range of motion

  • Flexibility is affected by many factors such as joint structure, length and elasticity of connective tissue, and nervous system activity.

  • Flexibility is needed in everyday routines.

  • Benefits include:

    • Lowered risk of back injuries

    • Promotion of good posture and decreased risk of other joint injuries

    • Reduction in age-related stiffness

Body Composition

  • The proportion of fat and fat-free mass (muscle, bone, and water) in the body

  • Healthy body composition is comprised of high levels of fat-free mass and an acceptable low level of body fat.

  • The relative amount of body fat a person has does have an impact upon overall health and fitness.

  • Too much body fat could have the following effects:

    • Heart disease

    • Insulin resistance

    • High blood pressure

    • Stroke

    • Joint problems

    • Type II Diabetes

  • The best way to lose fat is through exercise and a sensible diet.

    • Blood vessel inflammation

    • Gallbladder Disease

    • Cancer

    • Back pain

    • Premature death

    Skill-Related Components of Fitness

    • Speed

    • Power

    • Agility

    • Balance

    • Coordination

    • Reaction time

    Specificity—Adapting to Type of Training

    • The body adapts to the particular type and amount of stress placed on it

    • To develop a particular fitness component, perform exercises specifically designed for that component

    Progressive Overload—Adapting to Amount of Training

    • Placing increasing amounts of stress on the body causes adaptations that improve fitness; progression is critical

    • FITT principle for overload:

      • Frequency—How often

      • Intensity—How hard

      • Time—How long (duration)

      • Type—Mode of activity

    Reversibility—Adapting to a Reduction in Training

    • Fitness improvements are lost when demands on the body are lowered

    • If you stop exercising, up to 50% of fitness improvements are lost within 2 months

    Individual Differences— Limits on Adaptability

    • Everyone is NOT created equal from a physical standpoint

    • There are large individual differences in ability to improve fitness, body composition, and sports skills

    Designing Your Own Exercise Program

    • Medical clearance

      • Men under the age of 40 and women under 50: exercise is probably safe

      • PAR-Q

      • GXT

    • Assessing yourself

      • Assess you fitness level for all 5 health-related fitness components

    • Set goals: Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, Time (SMART)

    • Choose activities for a balanced program

    Physical Activity Pyramid

    Benefits of Different Types of Programs

    Guidelines for Training

    • Train the way you want your body to change

    • Train regularly

    • Start slowly, and get in shape gradually; do not overtrain

    • Warm up before exercise

    • Cool down after exercise

    • Exercise safely

    Guidelines for Training

    • Listen to your body, and get adequate rest

    • Cycle the volume and intensity of your workouts

    • Try training with a partner

    • Vary your activities

    • Train your mind

    • Fuel your activity appropriately

    • Have fun

    • Track your progress

    • Keep your exercise program in perspective

    Progression of an Exercise Program: Get in Shape Gradually

    Amount of Exercise for Fitness Benefits

    Choosing a Fitness Center

    • Convenience

    • Atmosphere

    • Safety

    • Trained personnel

    • Cost

    • Effectiveness

    Wellness Worksheet Assignment

    • Chapter 2 Connect Worksheet is due on Wednesday, September 12th, no later than 11:59PM.

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