Basic principles of physical fitness
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Basic Principles of Physical Fitness. Chapter 2. Physical Activity on a Continuum. Physical activity : any body movement carried out by the skeletal muscles and requiring energy Exercise : planned, structured, repetitive movement of the body designed to improve or maintain physical fitness

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Basic Principles of Physical Fitness

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Basic principles of physical fitness

Basic Principles of Physical Fitness

Chapter 2

Physical activity on a continuum

Physical Activity on a Continuum

  • Physical activity:

    any body movement carried out by the skeletal muscles and requiring energy

  • Exercise:

    planned, structured, repetitive movement of the body designed to improve or maintain physical fitness

  • Physical fitness:

    a set of physical attributes that allows the body to respond or adapt to the demands and stress of physical effort

Physical activity and exercise for health and fitness

Physical Activity and Exercise for Health and Fitness

  • Levels of physical activity have declined in recent years and remain low for all Americans

  • The Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported the following:

    • 33% participate in some leisure activity

    • About 28% of Americans report exercising vigorously for 10 minutes 3 times per week.

    • 25% are physically inactive

    • 39% of Americans with graduate degrees exercise compared to only 78% of high school dropouts

Percentage of adult americans reporting no leisure time physical activity

Percentage of adult Americans reporting no leisure-time physical activity

Increasing physical activity to improve health and wellness

Increasing Physical Activity to Improve Health and Wellness

  • 2010: the U.S. Surgeon General issued The Surgeon General’s Vision for a Healthy and Fit Nation.

  • 2008: The U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans recommends the following:

    • 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise, or 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise, per week

    • Increase the volume and intensity of an exercise for more health benefits

    • Healthy adults should do resistive exercises at least twice a week

    • Examples of moderate physical activity:

      • Brisk walking

      • Dancing

      • Swimming

      • Cycling

      • Yard work

    • Example of vigorous exercise: jogging

Moderate amounts of physical activity

Moderate Amounts of Physical Activity

Exercise to develop physical fitness

Exercise to Develop Physical Fitness

  • Lifestyle physical activity improves health but may not improve fitness

  • A structured, formal exercise program improves physical fitness and provides even greater health improvements

How much physical activity is enough

How Much Physical Activity Is Enough?

How much physical activity is enough1

How Much Physical Activity Is Enough?

  • Moderate-intensity versus high-intensity exercise

  • Continuous versus intermittent exercise

  • Low-intensity exercise improves health but may not be very beneficial for improving physical fitness

Health related components of physical fitness

Health-related Components of Physical Fitness

  • There are 5 areas of fitness which help establish health benefits

  • Health-related fitness helps you withstand physical challenges and protects you from diseases

  • The 5 components:

    • Cardiorespiratory Fitness

    • Muscular Strength

    • Muscular Endurance

    • Flexibility

    • Body Composition

Cardiorespiratory fitness

Cardiorespiratory Fitness

  • Ability to perform prolonged, large muscle, dynamic exercise at moderate to high levels of intensity.

    • Depends on the ability of the lungs to deliver oxygen from the environment to the bloodstream and the efficiency of the heart and nervous system

  • Cardiorespiratory fitness improves:

    • The heart pumps more blood per heartbeat

    • Resting heart rate slows

    • Blood volume increases

    • Blood supply to tissue improves

    • The body can cool itself better

    • Resting blood pressure decreases

    • Metabolism in skeletal muscle is enhanced

    • In older adults, levels of antioxidant chemicals are increased and lowers oxidative stress

  • Cardiorespiratory endurance exercise examples:

    • Walking

    • Jogging

    • Cycling

    • Aerobic dancing

Muscle strength and endurance

Muscle Strength and Endurance

  • Muscular Strength is the amount of force a muscle can produce in a single maximum effort

  • Muscular Endurance is the ability to resist fatigue and sustain a given level of muscle tension for a given time.

  • Benefits include:

    • Increased body mass

    • Increased metabolism

    • Reduced effects of sarcopenia

    • Increases antioxidant enzymes and lowers oxidative stress in older adults

    • Increased bone density

    • Improved self-confidence and ability to manage stress

    • Improved posture and reduction of low back pain



  • The ability to move the joints through their full range of motion

  • Flexibility is affected by many factors such as joint structure, length and elasticity of connective tissue, and nervous system activity.

  • Flexibility is needed in everyday routines.

  • Benefits include:

    • Lowered risk of back injuries

    • Promotion of good posture and decreased risk of other joint injuries

    • Reduction in age-related stiffness

Body composition

Body Composition

  • The proportion of fat and fat-free mass (muscle, bone, and water) in the body

  • Healthy body composition is comprised of high levels of fat-free mass and an acceptable low level of body fat.

  • The relative amount of body fat a person has does have an impact upon overall health and fitness.

  • Too much body fat could have the following effects:

    • Heart disease

    • Insulin resistance

    • High blood pressure

    • Stroke

    • Joint problems

    • Type II Diabetes

  • The best way to lose fat is through exercise and a sensible diet.

    • Blood vessel inflammation

    • Gallbladder Disease

    • Cancer

    • Back pain

    • Premature death

    Skill related components of fitness

    Skill-Related Components of Fitness

    • Speed

    • Power

    • Agility

    • Balance

    • Coordination

    • Reaction time

    Specificity adapting to type of training

    Specificity—Adapting to Type of Training

    • The body adapts to the particular type and amount of stress placed on it

    • To develop a particular fitness component, perform exercises specifically designed for that component

    Progressive overload adapting to amount of training

    Progressive Overload—Adapting to Amount of Training

    • Placing increasing amounts of stress on the body causes adaptations that improve fitness; progression is critical

    • FITT principle for overload:

      • Frequency—How often

      • Intensity—How hard

      • Time—How long (duration)

      • Type—Mode of activity

    Reversibility adapting to a reduction in training

    Reversibility—Adapting to a Reduction in Training

    • Fitness improvements are lost when demands on the body are lowered

    • If you stop exercising, up to 50% of fitness improvements are lost within 2 months

    Individual differences limits on adaptability

    Individual Differences— Limits on Adaptability

    • Everyone is NOT created equal from a physical standpoint

    • There are large individual differences in ability to improve fitness, body composition, and sports skills

    Designing your own exercise program

    Designing Your Own Exercise Program

    • Medical clearance

      • Men under the age of 40 and women under 50: exercise is probably safe

      • PAR-Q

      • GXT

    • Assessing yourself

      • Assess you fitness level for all 5 health-related fitness components

    • Set goals: Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, Time (SMART)

    • Choose activities for a balanced program

    Physical activity pyramid

    Physical Activity Pyramid

    Benefits of different types of programs

    Benefits of Different Types of Programs

    Guidelines for training

    Guidelines for Training

    • Train the way you want your body to change

    • Train regularly

    • Start slowly, and get in shape gradually; do not overtrain

    • Warm up before exercise

    • Cool down after exercise

    • Exercise safely

    Guidelines for training1

    Guidelines for Training

    • Listen to your body, and get adequate rest

    • Cycle the volume and intensity of your workouts

    • Try training with a partner

    • Vary your activities

    • Train your mind

    • Fuel your activity appropriately

    • Have fun

    • Track your progress

    • Keep your exercise program in perspective

    Progression of an exercise program get in shape gradually

    Progression of an Exercise Program: Get in Shape Gradually

    Amount of exercise for fitness benefits

    Amount of Exercise for Fitness Benefits

    Choosing a fitness center

    Choosing a Fitness Center

    • Convenience

    • Atmosphere

    • Safety

    • Trained personnel

    • Cost

    • Effectiveness

    Wellness worksheet assignment

    Wellness Worksheet Assignment

    • Chapter 2 Connect Worksheet is due on Wednesday, September 12th, no later than 11:59PM.

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