Archezoa
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Archezoa. Domain Eukarya Kingdom Protista Phylum Archaezoa. Looking Back at Bio 115. Cellular Structure (cell = unit of life)…one or many! Metabolism = Homeostasis (PSN, Resp, N 2 fix, ferment, etc.) Growth = irreversible change in size Reproduction…failure = extinction

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Archezoa

Archezoa

Domain Eukarya

Kingdom Protista

Phylum Archaezoa


Looking back at bio 115

Looking Back at Bio 115

Cellular Structure (cell = unit of life)…one or many!

Metabolism = Homeostasis (PSN, Resp, N2fix, ferment, etc.)

Growth = irreversible change in size

Reproduction…failure = extinction

Acclimatization-short term responses = behavior

Adaptation-long term responses = evolution

The Organism as a Unit of Life


Shifting kingdoms

Lumpers

Splitters

Animalia

Protista

Shifting Kingdoms


How many kingdoms

Multicellular Animals

Archezoans

Euglenoids

Slime Molds

Archaebacteria

Brown Algae

Protozoans

Chrysophytes

Red algae

Green Algae

Bryophytes

Myxozoans

True Fungi

Tracheophytes

Bacteria

8

5

3

2

1

Extant

How Many Kingdoms?

Protista appears

Extinct

Long Time with

Prokaryotes only

Original Cell


How many kingdoms1

Multicellular Animals

Archezoans

Euglenoids

Slime Molds

Archaebacteria

Brown Algae

Protozoans

Chrysophytes

Red algae

Green Algae

Bryophytes

Myxozoans

True Fungi

Tracheophytes

Bacteria

8

5

3

2

1

Extant

How Many Kingdoms?

Protista

refined

Protista appears

Extinct

Long Time with

Prokaryotes only

Original Cell


How many kingdoms2

Multicellular Animals

Archezoans

Euglenoids

Slime Molds

Archaebacteria

Brown Algae

Protozoans

Chrysophytes

Red algae

Green Algae

Bryophytes

Myxozoans

True Fungi

Tracheophytes

Bacteria

8

5

3

2

1

Extant

How Many Kingdoms?

Protista

refined

Still needs refining!

Protista appears

Extinct

Long Time with

Prokaryotes only

Original Cell


How many kingdoms3

Multicellular Animals

Archezoans

Euglenoids

Slime Molds

Archaebacteria

Brown Algae

Protozoans

Chrysophytes

Red algae

Green Algae

Bryophytes

Myxozoans

True Fungi

Tracheophytes

Bacteria

Extant

How Many Kingdoms?

EukaryotesAREChimeras!

Cyanobacterium

endosymbiosis

Extinct

Eubacterium

endosymbiosis

http://www.stockhillhouse.co.uk/griffon.jpg

Though sketched here as single events, these endosymbioses were very likely multiple events!

Original Cell


Archezoa 1355364

Archezoans

  • “Protozoan parasites without mitochondria or Golgi”

  • Oldest nucleated cells

    • Diverged from other Eukaryotes 2bybp…prior to ER and Golgi evolution

    • Lack peroxisomes

    • Ribosomes are 70S but NOT 80S

  • 400 species (many more likely unknown parasites!)

  • Three phyla:

    • Archaeamoebae/Pelobiontida (Pelomyxa)

    • Metamonada (Giardia)

    • Microsporidia


Archezoa 1355364

Pseudopodia

Endosymbiotic

bacteria

Uroid

Glycogen body

Vacuoles

Pelomyxa palustris

Free-living in freshwater sediment (microaerophilic)

Phagocytosis active

Accumulate glycogen reserves

At least 3 species of endosymbiont in each cell…two species are methanogenic archaeons!

Anterior uroid (macropseudopodium) for amoeboid movement

Smaller pseudopodia do not enlarge

http://www.btinternet.com/~stephen.durr/pelomyxapalustris.html


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Nuclei

“Daughter” Amoeba

Reproduction:

Mitosis of nucleus

Cytokinesis by furrowing

http://www.btinternet.com/~stephen.durr/pelomyxapalustris.html

What would you suggest has been a large component of this individual’s phagocytosis diet?

http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/micropolitan/fresh/protozoa/frame3.html


Archezoa 1355364

Giardia lamblia

Diplomonad intestinal parasite

2 nuclei in anterior of cell

Motility

2 anterior flagella

4 ventral flagella

2 posterior flagella

Ventral disc ridges provide adhesion to host

http://www.nih.go.jp/niid/para/atlas/images/giardia-trph.jpg


Archezoa 1355364

Giardia lamblia

Parasite cyst in feces of beaver released into watershed

http://www.nih.go.jp/niid/para/atlas/images/giardia-cyst2.jpg

Humans ingest water… cyst grows into trophozoite (shown)… parasite attaches to intestinal wall

Parasite proliferates and, as digestion continues, are torn from lining leading to bloody diarrhea

http://www.nps.gov/olym/people/giardia.jpg


Archezoa 1355364

Giardia lamblia

Parasite cyst showing environmentally-stable wall of cyst, ectoplasm, endoplasm with 2 of 4 nuclei

http://atlas.or.kr/atlas/include/viewImg.html?uid=302

Trophozoites in various planes of section showing nuclei, flagellae, etc.

http://atlas.or.kr/donation/donation_files/DSCN1031.jpg

Adhesive disc from ventral surface of trophozoite.


Archezoa 1355364

Nosema locustae

Microsporidian parasite of locusts, grasshoppers and crickets

Used as a form of biological control

http://bioweb.usu.edu/emlab/Galleries/parasites/color_microsporidia.jpg

http://entomology.unl.edu/images/beneficials/protozoan/nosema1.jpg

http://www.agecology.com/productlogos/nolobait.gif


Archezoa 1355364

Nosema algerae

Microsporidian parasite of mosquitoes

Wet Mount

Scanning EM

Transmission EM

http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/entomology/brooks/6a_d.jpg


Archezoa 1355364

Microsporidian parasite of honeybees

Swollen intestinal system, loss of banding patterns

Diarrhea, winterkill

Nosema apis

Control by Fumagillin-B from

Aspergillus fumigatus

http://www.uni-saarland.de/fak8/hartmann/images/fumagillin.jpg

http://maarec.cas.psu.edu/pest&disease/slide39.htm


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