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Africa union

AFRICA UNION

The African Union (abbreviated AU in English, and UA in its other official languages) is a union consisting of 54 African states. The only all-African state not in the AU is moroco. Established on 9 July 2002, the AU was formed as a successor to the Organisation of African Unity (OAU). The most important decisions of the AU are made by the Assembly of the African states, a semi-annual meeting of the heads of state and government of its member states. The AU's secretariat, the African Union Commission, is based in Addis Ababa Ethiopia


Geography
Geography

  • Member states of the African Union cover almost the entirety of continental Africa and several off-shore islands. Consequently, the geography of the African Union is wildly diverse, including the world's largest hot desert (the Sahara), huge jungles and savannas, and the world's longest river (the Nile).

  • The AU presently has an area of 29,922,059 km² (18,592,705 mi²), with 24,165 km (15,015 mi) of coastline. The vast majority of this area is on continental Africa, while the only significant territory off the mainland is the island of Madagascar (the world's fourth largest), accounting for slightly less than 2% of the total.


Objectives of a u
OBJECTIVES OF A U

  • Among the objectives of the AU's leading institutions are:

  • to accelerate the political and socio-economic integration of the continent;

  • to promote and defend African common positions on issues of interest to the continent and its peoples;

  • to achieve peace and security in Africa; and

  • to promote democratic institutions, good governance and human rights

  • The African Union is made up of both political and administrative bodies. The highest decision-making organ is the Assembly of the African Union, made up of all the heads of state or government of member states of the AU. The Assembly is chaired by Yayi Boni, president of Benin, elected at the 18thordinary meeting of the Assembly in January 2012. The AU also has a representative body, the Pan African Parliament, which consists of 265 members elected by the national parliaments of the AU member states. Its president is Dr IdrissNdele Moussa


Financial institutions
Financial institutions

  • African Central Bank – Abuja, Nigeria

  • African Investment Bank – Tripoli, Libya

  • African Monetary Fund – Yaoundé, Cameroon.

  • These institutions have not yet been established, however, the Steering Committees working on their founding have been constituted. Eventually, the AU aims to have a single currency (theAfro).


Headquarters
HEADQUARTERS

  • The African Union's new headquarters complex in Addis Ababa.

  • The main administrative capital of the African Union is in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, where the African Union Commission is headquartered. A new headquarters complex, the AU Conference Center and Office Complex (AUCC), was inaugurated on 28th January 2012, during the 18th AU summit.The complex was built by China State Construction Engineering Corporation as a gift from the Chinese government, and accommodates, amongst other facilities, a 2,500-seat plenary hall and a 20-story office tower. The tower is 99.9 meters high to signify the date 9th September 1999, when the Organization of African Unity voted to become the African Union.]


History of au
HISTORY OF AU

  • The historical foundations of the African Union originated in the Union of African States, an early confederation that was established by Kwame Nkrumah in the 1960s, as well as subsequent attempts to unite Africa, including the Organisation of African Unity (OAU), which was established on 25 May 1963, and the African Economic Community in 1981. Critics argued that the OAU in particular did little to protect the rights and liberties of African citizens from their own political leaders, often dubbing it the "Dictators' Club".


Revival of au
Revival of AU

  • The idea of creating the AU was revived in the mid-1990s under the leadership of Libyan head of state Muammar al-Gaddafi: the heads of state and government of the OAU issued the Sirte Declaration (named after Sirte, in Libya) on 9 September 1999, calling for the establishment of an African Union. The Declaration was followed by summits at Lomé in 2000, when the Constitutive Act of the African Union was adopted, and at Lusaka in 2001, when the plan for the implementation of the African Union was adopted. During the same period, the initiative for the establishment of the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD), was also established.

  • The African Union was launched in Durban on 9 July 2002, by its first chairperson, South African Thabo Mbeki, at the first session of the Assembly of the African Union. The second session of the Assembly was in Maputo in 2003, and the third session in Addis Ababa on 6 July 2004.


Regional blocks
REGIONAL BLOCKS

  • the Arab Maghreb Union (UMA)

  • the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA)

  • the Community of Sahel-Saharan States(CEN-SAD)

  • the East African Community (EAC)

  • the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS)

  • the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)

  • the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD)

  • the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC)


Foreign policy
Foreign policy

  • The individual member states of the African Union coordinate foreign policy through this agency, in addition to conducting their owninternational relations on a state-by-state basis. The AU represents the interests of African peoples at large in intergovernmental organisations (IGOs); for instance, it is a permanent observer at the United Nations General Assembly. Both the African Union and the United Nations work in tandem to address issues of common concerns in various areas. The African Union Mission in United Nations aspires to serve as a bridge between the two Organisations.

  • Membership of the AU overlaps with other IGOs and occasionally these third-party organisations and the AU will coordinate matters of public policy. The African Union maintains special diplomatic representation with the United States and the European Union.


Current issues
Current issues

  • The AU faces many challenges, including health issues such as combating malaria and theAIDS/HIV epidemic; political issues such as confronting undemocratic regimes and mediating in the many civil wars; economic issues such as improving the standard of living of millions of impoverished, uneducated Africans; ecological issues such as dealing with recurring famines,desertification, and lack of ecological sustainability; as well as the legal issues regarding Western Sahara.


Au leadership
AU LEADERSHIP

  • Chairpersons of the African UnionNameBeginning of termEnd of termCountryThabo Mbeki 9 July 200210 July 2003  South Africa Joaquim Chissano10 July 2003 6 July 2004  Mozambique Olusegun Obasanjo 6 July 2004 24 January 2006  Nigeria Denis Sassou-Nguesso 24 January 200624 January 2007  Republic of the Congo John Kufuor 30 January 200731 January 2008  Ghana Jakaya Kikwete 31 January 2008 2 February 2009  Tanzania Muammar al-Gaddafi 2 February 200931 January 2010 Libya Bingu wa Mutharika  January 201031 January 2011  Malawi Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo 31 January 2011 29 January 2012  Equatorial GuineaYayi Boni 29 January 2012 Incumbent  Benin


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