Mutations
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Mutations. Mutation effects. Reproductive Cells -mutation in DNA sequence of an egg or sperm cell -mutation is passed on to offspring - possible effects include: production of a new trait, a dysfunctional protein, lethal, or positive effects (evolution). Mutation effects. Body Cells

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Mutation effects
Mutation effects

  • Reproductive Cells

  • -mutation in DNA sequence of an egg or sperm cell

  • -mutation is passed on to offspring

  • - possible effects include: production of a new trait, a dysfunctional protein, lethal, or positive effects (evolution)


Mutation effects1
Mutation effects

  • Body Cells

  • - change in the DNA sequence of a body cell (liver cell, skin cell etc)

  • -not passed on to offspring (only affects the individual)

  • -possible effects include: may damage the function of that cell

    • Ex: a stomach cell that loses the ability to make acid for digestion, when the cell divides, the mutation continues


Types of mutation
Types of mutation

  • Point mutation =a change in a single base pair in DNA


Point mutation effects
Point mutation effects

  • possibly the wrong amino acid is made so the function of the protein could be messed up


Types of mutations
Types of mutations

  • Frameshift mutation = a single base is added or deleted from the DNA sequence which causes a shift in the reading of the codons


Frameshift mutation effects
Frameshift mutation effects

  • Possible effects: all amino acids after the addition or deletion are wrong SO much worse!


Types of mutations1
Types of mutations

  • Chromosomal mutation = a change in a chromosome (part is broken off or parts switch places)

  • Examples:

    • deletion

    • insertion

    • inversion

    • translocation

  • Possible Effects: offspring usually dies; if not the offspring is sterile


Causes of mutations
Causes of mutations

  • Spontaneous- mistakes during base pairing (transcription)

  • Mutagen= any agent that can cause a change in DNA

    • Ex: 1. Radiation (Xrays, UV light)

      2. Chemicals (asbestos, cyanide, formaldehyde)

      3. High Temperatures


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