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Mutations. Mutation effects. Reproductive Cells -mutation in DNA sequence of an egg or sperm cell -mutation is passed on to offspring - possible effects include: production of a new trait, a dysfunctional protein, lethal, or positive effects (evolution). Mutation effects. Body Cells

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Presentation Transcript
mutation effects
Mutation effects
  • Reproductive Cells
  • -mutation in DNA sequence of an egg or sperm cell
  • -mutation is passed on to offspring
  • - possible effects include: production of a new trait, a dysfunctional protein, lethal, or positive effects (evolution)
mutation effects1
Mutation effects
  • Body Cells
  • - change in the DNA sequence of a body cell (liver cell, skin cell etc)
  • -not passed on to offspring (only affects the individual)
  • -possible effects include: may damage the function of that cell
    • Ex: a stomach cell that loses the ability to make acid for digestion, when the cell divides, the mutation continues
types of mutation
Types of mutation
  • Point mutation =a change in a single base pair in DNA
point mutation effects
Point mutation effects
  • possibly the wrong amino acid is made so the function of the protein could be messed up
types of mutations
Types of mutations
  • Frameshift mutation = a single base is added or deleted from the DNA sequence which causes a shift in the reading of the codons
frameshift mutation effects
Frameshift mutation effects
  • Possible effects: all amino acids after the addition or deletion are wrong SO much worse!
types of mutations1
Types of mutations
  • Chromosomal mutation = a change in a chromosome (part is broken off or parts switch places)
  • Examples:
    • deletion
    • insertion
    • inversion
    • translocation
  • Possible Effects: offspring usually dies; if not the offspring is sterile
causes of mutations
Causes of mutations
  • Spontaneous- mistakes during base pairing (transcription)
  • Mutagen= any agent that can cause a change in DNA
    • Ex: 1. Radiation (Xrays, UV light)

2. Chemicals (asbestos, cyanide, formaldehyde)

3. High Temperatures

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