Unit 14 nuclear chemistry
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Unit 14: Nuclear CHemistry. Section 3: Radioactive Decay and Half-Life. Radioactive Decay. The spontaneous emission of rays or particles from certain nuclei as they “decay,” such as Uranium . These rays or particles are called nuclear radiation . They come in three types:

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Unit 14: Nuclear CHemistry

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Unit 14 nuclear chemistry

Unit 14: Nuclear CHemistry

Section 3: Radioactive Decay and

Half-Life


Radioactive decay

Radioactive Decay

  • The spontaneous emission of rays or particles from certain nuclei as they “decay,” such as Uranium.

    • These rays or particles are called nuclear radiation.

    • They come in three types:

      • Alpha Radiation: Helium nucleus; 2+ Charge; Low power (0.05 mm body tissue)

      • Beta Radiation: electron; 1- Charge; Moderate power (4 mm body tissue)

      • Gamma Radiation: electromagnetic wave; neutral charge; High Power (penetrates entire body easily)


Alpha decay of uranium

Alpha Decay of Uranium


Half life

Half-Life

  • While the process is spontaneous, it is not instantaneous… it takes time!

  • The time required for HALF of the atoms of a radioactive substance to decay is called a half-life.


Carbon dating c 14

Carbon-Dating!! C-14


Example fluorine 18

Example: Fluorine-18

18

9

  • Fluorine 18 ( F) has a half-life of 110 seconds. This material is used extensively in medicine. The hospital laboratory begins the day with 10 grams of F…

18

9


Unit 14 nuclear chemistry

How many half-lives of f-18 occur in 11 minutes (660 sec)?

1 half-life = 110 seconds

660 seconds

110 seconds

= 6 half-lives


Unit 14 nuclear chemistry

How much of the 10-gram sample would be left after 11 minutes?

  • 6 half-lives = 10 divided in half, 6 times

  • 10/2 = 5 grams

  • 5/2 = 2.5 grams

  • 2.5/2 = 1.25 grams

  • 1.25/2 = 0.625 grams

  • 0.625/2 = 0.3125 grams

  • 0.3125/2 = 0.15625 grams

    After 11 minutes, only 0.16 g of the 10 g sample remain!!!!!!


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