slide1
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Fed State

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 46

Fed State - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 145 Views
  • Uploaded on

Fed State. Insulin. Insulin. Glucagon/ Epinephrine. Fasted State/ Starvation. Glucagon/ Epinephrine. Glucagon/ Epinephrine. Hexokinase/ Glucokinase. *. Phosphofructo- kinase-1. *. Pyruvate kinase. *. *. HEXOKINASE inhibited by Glu 6-P GLUCOKINASE USED IN LIVER

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Fed State' - hedda


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide2

Fed State

Insulin

Insulin

slide3

Glucagon/

Epinephrine

Fasted State/

Starvation

Glucagon/

Epinephrine

Glucagon/

Epinephrine

slide4

Hexokinase/

Glucokinase

*

Phosphofructo-

kinase-1

*

Pyruvate

kinase

*

slide5

*

HEXOKINASE

inhibited by

Glu 6-P

GLUCOKINASE

USED IN LIVER

Fructose 6-P reduces

activity by causing

enzyme to translocate

to nucleus

*

*

slide6

*

Phosphofructo-

kinase-1

+ Fructose 2,6- bisP

AMP

- ATP, citrate

- Glucagon & Epinephrine

in Liver

*

*

slide7

*

*

Pyruvate Kinase

+ fructose-1,6-bisP

- ATP, alanine

- glucagon &

epinephrine

*

slide8

Glucokinase

Liver:

Insulin

Increases

Transcription

Of Genes

Encoding

These Enzymes

PFK-1

*

Pyruvate Kinase

slide9

*

Liver:

Glucagon

Epinephrine

*

PFK-2/

PFK-1

*

Pyruvate Kinase

slide10

*

Heart:

Epinephrine

*

PFK-2/

PFK-1

*

slide12

Pyruvate Dehydrogenase (PDH)

Lactate

Alanine

PDH Activity Low

Thiamine Deficiency

Arsenic Poisoning

PDH Gene Deficiency:

Lactic Acidosis

Neurological Defects

Treatment – ketogenic diet

slide13

Galactosemia

Treatment:

Eliminate galactose/

Lactose MILK

glucose homeostasis is required for survival
Glucose Homeostasis is Required for Survival

Glucose Glycogen

Pi

Glucose 6-PhosphataseGlycogen Degradation

Glycogen Phosphorylase

Phosphorylase Kinase

Glucose 6-Phosphate Glucose 1-Phosphate

Gluconeogenesis

Pyruvate

slide16

Glucose

Glucose

6-phosphatase

Glucose 6-phosphaate

Triacylglycerol

Fructose 6-phosphate

Fructose

1,6-bisphosphatase

-F-2,6-bisP

-AMP

Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate

Glycerol

Glyceraldehyde

3-phosphate

Dihydroxyacetone

phosphate

1,3 Bisphosphoglycerate

3, Phosphoglycerate

Muscle Protein

Glycolysis

In other Tissues

Phosphoenolpyruvate

Phosphoenolpyruvate

Carboxykinase

***

Oxaloacetate

Some amino acids

+AcCoA

requires biotin

Pyruvate carboxylase

Lactate

Some amino acids

Pyruvate

slide17

Ethanol metabolism can cause hypoglycemia;

the high NADH opposes gluconeogenesis

Ethanol metabolism increases NADH

Increased NADH promotes the conversion

of two glucogenic precursors (pyruvate and

oxaloacetate) to lactate and malate.

This removes pyruvate and oxaloacetate from

the pool of glucogenic precursors.

slide20

Pentose Phosphate Pathway

(Hexose Monophosphate Shunt)

Generates:

NADPH – Lipid Biosynthesis

Ribose 5-Phosphate – Purine Biosynthesis – e.g., DNA, RNA, CoA

slide21

A Genetic Deficiency of Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase is Associated with Drug-Induced Hemolytic Anemia.

slide22

Malaria

Glucose 6- Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency

Shaded Countries: > 1/200 men with deficiency

5-25% in Tropical Africa, Middle East, Tropical Asia, Mediterranean

slide24

Fed State

Insulin

Dietary

Glucose

Insulin

slide26

Epinephrine

Epinephrine

slide27

Acetyl CoA Carboxylase

Citrate, Insulin

+

Biotin

-

Long Chain Fatty Acids

Glucagon, Epinephrine

slide28

Chylomicron-TAG

(from intestines)

Epinephrine

-

+

Insulin

PGs

slide30

Carnitine

transports

fatty acids

into the

mitochondrial

matrix.

CPT –1

Only Inhibitor

Is Malonyl-CoA

slide31

Ketone bodies:

Beta-hydroxybutyrate

Acetoacetate

acetone

slide32

LDL Metabolism

“Statins”

Inhibit

HMC-CoA

Reductase

slide35

HDL is involved with

reverse cholesterol transport

slide36

* treatment

* treatment

* treatment

slide37

*

*

Infantile only

*

*

*

* Mental Retardation

slide40

Type 1 Collagen

Triple-stranded

Gly-X-Y repeat

Glycine – smallest aa

Proline – polyproline

helix

OH-pro, OH-lys

H-bonding

Lysine aldehydes

cross-linking

slide41

Selected Collagen Disorders

Disorder Collagen synthesis Clinical Manifestations

Osteogenesis Decreased synthesis susceptibility to fractures

Imperfecta 1 of type 1 collagen sometimes confused with child abuse

blue sclerae - translucent

Autosomal Dominant – may act like connective tissue over choroid

dominant negative

Osteogenesis Point mutations & re- Perinatal death; soft, fragile

Imperfecta 2 arrangement of exons in & malformed bones

triple helical regions

Autosomal Dominant

Ehlers- Faulty collagen synthesis Hyperextensive skin,

Danlos hypermobility of joints,

tendency to bleed

fibrillin is essential to the integrity of elastin

Fibrillin is essential to the integrity of elastin

Marfan’s Syndrome

mutation in the fibrillin gene

slide43

Glycogen

Glycogen

Synthase

Phosphorylase Kinase

Glycogen Phosphorylase

UDP-Glucose

  • Pentose Phosphate Pathway

Glucose 1-P

(NADPH ribose 5-P, glycolytic intermediates)

Hexokinase/Glucokinase

Glucose

Glucose-6-P

Glucose 6-Phosphatase

Phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK1)

Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphatase

Triose Phosphates

(Glyceraldehyde 3-P Dehydrogenase)

Pyruvate Kinase

PEP Carboxykinase

Lactate Dehydrogenase

2 Lactate

2 Pyruvate

Pyruvate

Carboxylase

Pyruvate Dehydrogenase

Acetyl-CoA

Precursor of Lipids

Citrate

Oxaloacetate

Formed from Fatty Acid

and Ketone Metabolism

CO2, H2O, 12 ~ P

ad