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第八章 主族金属元素(一) 碱 金属和碱土金属 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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第八章 主族金属元素(一) 碱 金属和碱土金属. 第一节 化学元素的自然资源 第二节 碱金属 第三节 碱土金属. 第一节 化学元素的自然资源. 1-1 地壳中元素的分布和存在类型 ( 见 P169 表 8-1 ). 1-2 元素资源的存在形式和提取、利用. 1 化学矿物 2 天然含盐水 3 大气 4 农副产品 5 工业废料. Gc2-704-18.8. Na. K. Li. Rb Cs. Sr. Mg. Ca. Be. Ba. 第二节 碱金属. 2-1 碱金属元素概述. 1 、 价电子构型

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第八章 主族金属元素(一) 碱 金属和碱土金属

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1-1 (P1698-1

1-2

1

2

3

4

5


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Gc2-704-18.8

Na

K

Li

Rb Cs

Sr

Mg

Ca

Be

Ba


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2-1

1

(IA ): ns1

Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr


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2:

Gc2-705-18.9

s


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3

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:


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2-2


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2NaCl === 2Na + Cl2

1

2

1473K

K2CO3 +2C===2K + 3CO

3()

KCl +Na == NaCl + K


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2-3

1 ,

LiH NaH KH RbH CsH

-90.4 -57.3 -57.7-54.3 -49.3


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2 )

  • :

  • :


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2-4

1

Li2O Na2O2KO2 RbO2 CsO2

(1) H2O:

Li Cs

BeO


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(2) CO2


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3

. Na2O2 ,


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2

LiOH NaOH KOH RbOH CsOH

() ,


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NaOH KOH

()NaOHCO2


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  • 2A1+2NaOH+6H2O2Na[Al(OH)4]+3H2

  • A12O3+2NaOH 2NaAlO2+H2O

  • Si + 2NaOH+H2O=Na2SiO3+2H2

  • SiO2+2NaOHNa2SiO3+H2O


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2-5

1

(1) NaHCO3NaCl


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(2) KNO3KClO3

(3) Na2SO410H2OK2SO4Na2HPO410H2O


1 2 3 4

1234

2


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  • NH4ClNaCl,510NaCl,NH4Cl,CO2,CaCl2


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  • NH3 + CO2 + H2O NH4HCO3

  • NH4HCO3 + NaCl NaHCO3 + NH4Cl

  • 2NaHCO3 Na2CO3+ CO2 + H2O

  • 2NH4Cl + Ca(OH) 2 CaCl2 + 2 NH3 + 2H2O

    : , NaCl , CaCl2


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3-1

1

(IIA ): ns2

Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra

2


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3

Na

K

Ca

Sr

Li

Ba


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4

1

Li Be B C

Na Mg Al Si


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  • 2


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3-2

1.

BeO MgO CaO SrO Ba2O2


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2

BeO

LiOH NaOH KOH RbOH CsOH

Be(OH)2 Mg(OH)2 Ca(OH)2 Sr(OH)2 Ba(OH)2

() ,


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MOH

  • M- O- H M+ + OH-

  • M- O- H MO- + H+

  • = z/r (z: Mr)

  • 1/20.22MOH

  • 1/2 0.22~0.32 MOH

    1/2 0.32 MOH


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MOH

20


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3-3

1)

Be2+

BeCl2 MgCl2 CaCl2 SrCl2 BaCl2

/ 405 714 782 876 962


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(2)

(3)

(4)


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2

BeCO3 MgCO3 CaCO3 SrCO3 BaCO3

T / 100 540 900 1290 1360

O

C

O

O

M2CO3 MCO3


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