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MA-20 Evolution of Warfare The Nature of War. Man and War LtCol Mitchell. HOW WE’RE GOING TO EXAMINE THE “EVOLUTION OF WARFARE”. USE MCDP-1 (MARINE CORPS WARFIGHTING DOCTRINE) AS A TOOL TO ANALYSE PAST BATTLES, CAMPAIGNS & WARS

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Ma 20 evolution of warfare the nature of war

MA-20 Evolution of WarfareThe Nature of War

Man and War LtCol Mitchell


How we re going to examine the evolution of warfare
HOW WE’RE GOING TO EXAMINE THE “EVOLUTION OF WARFARE”

  • USE MCDP-1 (MARINE CORPS WARFIGHTING DOCTRINE) AS A TOOL TO ANALYSE PAST BATTLES, CAMPAIGNS & WARS

  • USE INTERNAL & EXTERNAL THREADS OF HISTORICAL CONTINUITY IN WAR AS A MEANS TO ANALYZE EFFECTS ON CONFLICT

  • USE PRINCIPLES OF WAR


NATURE OF WAR

“Everything in war is simple, but the simplest thing is difficult.

The difficulties accumulate and end by producing a kind

of friction that is inconceivable unless one has experienced

war.”

— Carl von Clausewitz

“In war the chief incalculable is the human will.”

— B. H. Liddell Hart

“Positions are seldom lost because they have been destroyed,

but almost invariably because the leader has decided in his

own mind that the position cannot be held.”

— A. A. Vandegrift


WAR

What is the definition of “WAR” ?

  • “Open and declared armed hostile conflict between states or nations.”

  • “Any conflict between rival groups by force of arms or other means,…recognized as a legal conflict.” (Preston and Wise)

  • “An act of force to compel the enemy to do our will” (Clausewitz)


WAR

  • Spectrum of conflict

    • Level of commitment (and destruction)

    • Driven by policy and culture

MOOTW 

Total war

Limited War 


Nature of war
NATURE of WAR

  • Friction

  • Uncertainty

  • Fluidity

  • Complexity

  • Disorder

  • Human Dimension

    • FEAR

    • Physical, mental, moral forces


Nature of war1
NATURE of WAR

Is War more Art or Science?

  • ART

    • Leadership

    • Courage

    • Tactics

    • Enemy analysis

    • Execution

  • SCIENCE

    • Logistics

    • Troops

    • Weapons systems

    • Enemy capabilities

    • Planning


Origins of war

NATURE OF WAR

Origins of war

  • Group discussions of what constitutes warfare.

  • War – “A violent clash of interests between or among organized groups characterized by the use of military force.” (MCDP-1)

  • Warfare – The waging of war against an enemy; armed conflict. Acts undertaken to destroy or undermine the strength of another.

  • Is warfare a natural state of Man?

  • Mans evolution that contributed to the conduct of war.

    • Domestication and Agriculture


Historical threads of continuity
HISTORICAL THREADS OF CONTINUITY

  • ART OF WAR IS EVER-CHANGING

  • EACH WAR IS DIFFERENT

    • CHANGE COMES ABOUT IN TWO WAYS

      • EVOLUTIONARY

      • REVOLUTIONARY

    • WHAT ARE SOME EXAMPLES


Historical threads of continuity1
HISTORICAL THREADS OF CONTINUITY

  • MILITARY LEADERS MUST BE STUDENTS OF THE ART AND SCIENCE OF WAR

  • ADAPT TO CHANGE

    • ADAPT OR FAIL…

    • FAILURE TO LET GO OF THE PAST


Internal threads
INTERNAL THREADS

  • MILITARY PROFESSIONALISM

  • TACTICS

  • OPERATIONS

  • STRATEGY

  • LOGISTICS & ADMINISTRATION

  • GENERALSHIP

  • MILITARY THEORY & DOCTRINE


Military professionalism
MILITARY PROFESSIONALISM

  • WHAT IS A PROFESSION

    • “An occupation or a calling that requires specialized knowledge of a given field of human activity.”

  • MILITARY PROFESSIONALISM IS:

    • “Conduct, aims and qualities of members seeking to create or striving to perfect a profession whose public service is the conduct of war.”


Tactics
TACTICS

  • SPECIFIC TECHNIQUES SMALLER UNITS USE TO WIN BATTLES AND ENGAGEMENTS

    • ENGAGEMENT – Small tactical conflict, usually between maneuver forces

    • BATTLE – A series of related tactical engagements. Battles last longer than engagements & usually involve larger forces


Operations
OPERATIONS

  • PLANNING AND CONDUCT OF CAMPAIGNS DESIGNED TO DEFEAT AN ENEMY IN A SPECIFIC SPACE AND TIME WITH SIMULTANEOUS AND SEQUENTIAL BATTLES

    • The Commander projects thoughts forward in both time and space


Operations1
OPERATIONS

  • LINK BETWEEN STRATEGY & TACTICS

  • USE AVAILABLE MILITARY RESOURCES TO ATTAIN OBJECTIVES IN A SPECIFIC THEATER OF WAR


Strategy
STRATEGY

  • THE LONG-RANGE PLANS AND POLICIES FOR DISTRIBUTING AND APPLYING RESOURCES TO ACHIEVE SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

  • ATTAINMENT OF THE POLITICAL OBJECTIVES OF WAR THROUGH THE APPLICATION OF FORCE OR THE THREAT OF FORCE


Logistics administration
LOGISTICS & ADMINISTRATION

  • Logistics is the providing, movement and maintenance of all services and resources necessary to sustain military forces

  • Administration is the management of all services & resources necessary to sustain military forces


Logistics

Design

Development

Acquisition

Storage

Movement

Distribution

Maintenance

Evacuation & disposal of material

Movement, evacuation, & hospitalization of personnel

Facilities

Civilian Labor

Services

LOGISTICS


Military theory doctrine
MILITARY THEORY & DOCTRINE

  • THEORY – The body of ideas that concern war, especially the organization & training for & the conduct of war

    • Those whose thoughts about war have influenced considerable numbers of soldiers are known as military theorists


Military theory doctrine1
MILITARY THEORY & DOCTRINE

  • DOCTRINE – The authoritative fundamental principles by which military forces guide their actions in support of objectives

    • Doctrine is generally disseminated through manuals, regulations, circulars, & handbooks that prescribe standardized procedures & organizations


Military theory doctrine2
MILITARY THEORY & DOCTRINE

  • After examination & acceptance by highly experienced professionals, theory becomes doctrine

    • Sound Judgment

    • Solutions to every critical situation cannot be found in doctrine


Generalship
GENERALSHIP

  • EXERCISING THE QUALITIES & ATTRIBUTES NECESSARY TO COMMAND MAJOR UNITS

    • Involved in each thread of continuity

    • Deep understanding of the value of morale and esprit to the profession


Napoleon said
NAPOLEON SAID:

  • “KNOWLEDGE OF THE HIGHER SPHERES OF WAR IS ONLY ACQUIRED THROUGH THE STUDY OF THE WARS & BATTLES OF GREAT CAPTAINS (MEANING: LEADERS OF BATTLES) & BY EXPERIENCE.”


Napoleon said1
NAPOLEON SAID:

  • “EVERYTHING DEPENDS UPON THE:

    • CHARACTER OF THE GENERAL

      • QUALITIES & FAULTS

    • NATURE OF THE TROOPS

    • RANGE OF WEAPONS

    • SEASON

    • THOUSAND CIRCUMSTANCES THAT ARE NEVER THE SAME


External threads
EXTERNAL THREADS

  • POLITICAL FACTORS

  • SOCIAL FACTORS

  • ECONOMIC FACTORS

  • TECHNOLOGY


External factors
EXTERNAL FACTORS

  • POLITICAL, SOCIAL, AND ECONOMIC FACTORS PROVIDE THE FOUNDATIONS OF NATIONAL POWER

  • TECHNOLOGY OFTEN PROVIDES THE LIMITS TO NATIONAL POWER


Political factors
POLITICAL FACTORS

  • IDEAS & ACTIONS OF GOVERNMENTS OR ORGANIZED GROUPS THAT AFFECT THE ACTIVITIES OF WHOLE SOCIETIES


Political factors1
POLITICAL FACTORS

  • Determine the composition & strength of the military

  • Establish goals & policies for which wars are fought

  • Have major influence upon the military profession


Political factors2
POLITICAL FACTORS

  • Until middle of 19th Century, most heads of state were usually the military commanders as well

  • Democratic societies of today have political policies quite removed from military capabilities & goals


Political factors3
POLITICAL FACTORS

  • In Democratic Societies –

    • Military profession influences legislation & administrative decisions regarding national security

  • Consequences of military actions on the international balance of power & the behavior of foreign states


Social factors
SOCIAL FACTORS

  • POPULAR ATTITUDES

  • RELIGIOUS INSTITUTIONS

  • LEVEL OF EDUCATION

  • ROLES OF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

  • PSYCHOLOGICAL WARFARE

    • PSYCHOLOGICAL OPERATIONS: (DOD)

      • Planned operations to convey selected information and indicators to foreign audiences to influence their emotions, motives, objective reasoning, and ultimately the behavior of foreign government, organizations, groups, and individuals. The purpose of psychological operations is to induce or reinforce foreign attitudes and behavior favorable to the originator's objectives. Also called PSYOP. See also perception management.

  • MASS MEDIA


Social factors1
SOCIAL FACTORS

  • MINORITY QUESTIONS

  • STANDARDS OF MORALITY & JUSTICE

  • COMBAT PSYCHOLOGY

  • THE WILL OF A PEOPLE TO RESIST

    • WHAT SOCIAL FACTORS AFFECTED THE FIGHTING OF THE VIETNAM WAR


Economic factors
ECONOMIC FACTORS

  • PRODUCTION

  • DISTRIBUTION

  • CONSUMPTION

    • THESE ARE THE MATERIAL RESOURCES OF THE STATE

  • DIFFERENT TYPES OF ECONOMIES AFFECT WARFARE DIFFERENTLY


Economic factors1
ECONOMIC FACTORS

  • ECONOMIC WAR

    • BOYCOTT

    • BLOCKADE

      • PART OF TOTAL WAR, BUT CAN ALSO OCCUR WHEN WAR AS A GENERAL CONDITION DOES NOT EXIST


Technology
TECHNOLOGY

  • TECHNOLOGY IS THE USING OF KNOWLEDGE TO CREATE OR IMPROVE UPON PRACTICAL OBJECTS OR METHODS


Technology1
TECHNOLOGY

  • WITHIN THE MILITARY PROFESSION, TECHNOLOGY LEADS TO PROGRESSIVE ADVANCEMENT IN SUCH AREAS AS:

    • TRANSPORTATION

    • WEAPONRY

    • COMMUNICATIONS

    • CONSTRUCTION

    • METALLURGY

    • FOOD PRODUCTION AND MEDICINE


Technology examples
TECHNOLOGY (EXAMPLES)

  • LASARS

  • ACCOUSTIC WPNS – MOTION SICKNESS, NAUSEA, DIARRHEA, INTERNAL ORGANS RESONATE

  • VORTEX WPN – SENDS SHOCK WAVE

  • ELECTROMAGNETIC WPN – PRODUCES SEIZURE

  • LOW FREQUENCY ELECTROMAGNETIC WPNS – CAUSES BRAIN TO RELEASE CHEMICALS BRINGING ON SLEEP, RELEASE OF HISTAMINES

  • MICROWAVE WPNS – PAIN, BURNS


Technology2
TECHNOLOGY

  • HAS AN INFLUENCE UPON:

    • STRATEGY

    • TACTICS

    • LOGISTICS

    • MILITARY THEORY AND DOCTRINE

    • GENERALSHIP


Threads of continuity
THREADS OF CONTINUITY

  • OFFER A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK THAT SEEKS TO PROVIDE A MEANS TO RECONSTRUCT AT LEAST THE GENERAL OUTLINE OF THE MILITARY PAST

  • USE DOCTRINE, “THREADS,” & PRINCIPLES TO EVALUATE WARFARE


Threads of continuity1
THREADS OF CONTINUITY

  • PATTON

    “THE PURPOSE OF HISTORY IS TO LEARN HOW HUMAN BEINGS REACT WHEN EXPOSED TO THE DANGER OF WOUNDS OR DEATH, & HOW HIGH RANKING INDIVIDUALS REACT WHEN SUBMITTED TO THE ONEROUS RESPONSIBILITY OF CONDUCTING WAR OR THE PREPARATIONS FOR WAR.”


Principles of war

MASS

OBJECTIVE

OFFENSIVE

SECURITY

ECONOMY OF FORCE

MANEUVER

UNITY OF COMMAND

SURPRISE

SIMPLICITY

PRINCIPLES OF WAR


Principles of war1
PRINCIPLES OF WAR

  • FIELD MARSHALL EARL WARELL

    • “DON’T TREAT THE SO-CALLED PRINCIPLE OF WAR AS HOLY WRIT, LIKE THE TEN COMMANDMENTS. THEY ARE MERELY COMMON SENSE MAXIMS. MERELY TO MEMORIZE THE MAXIM “CUT YOUR COAT ACCORDING TO YOUR CLOTH” DOES NOT INSTRUCT ONE HOW TO BE A TAILOR.”


MASS

CONCENTRATE COMBAT POWER AT THE DECISIVE PLACE AND TIME


Mass good example
MASS: GOOD EXAMPLE

  • RUSSIAN ARTILLERY

    • GERMANS FEARED RUSSIAN OFFENSIVE DUE TO MASSED USE OF ARTILLERY AT POINT OF DECISION

    • FOCUS ARTILLERY REGIMENT/DIVISION ON ONE GRID SQUARE

      • PHYSICALLY & PSCHOLOGICALLY DISLOCATE YOUR ENEMY


Mass bad example
MASS: BAD EXAMPLE

  • BATTLE OF SOMME, SUMMER OF 1916, WWI

    • HUGE CONCENTRATION OF ARTILLERY TO BATTER GERMAN DEFENSES OVER 20-MILE FRONT

    • 1,400 GUNS SPREAD OUT OVER THAT DISTANCE

    • NOT ENOUGH MASS FOR TRENCH WARFARE

      • MORE FOCUS & MASS SHOULD HAVE BEEN USED AT POINT OF DECISION, CREATING A GAP IN LINE

    • 20,000 DEAD

    • OF THE 120,000 ATTACKING, 57,000 BECAME CASUALTIES


Objective

OBJECTIVE

Directs military operations toward a defined and attainable objective that contributes to strategic, operational, or tactical aims


Offensive

OFFENSIVE

Dictates that we act rather than react and dictate the time, place, purpose, scope, intensity, and pace of operations. The initiative must be seized, retained, and fully exploited.


Offensive1
OFFENSIVE

  • ALWAYS PLAN TO REGAIN THE OFFENSIVE, FOR IT’S ONLY ON THE OFFENSIVE WHERE WE HOPE TO IMPOSE OUR WILL

  • RESORT TO DEFENSE WHEN WEAKNESS COMPELS YOU

  • EVEN IN THE DEFENSE YOU CAN ASSUME AN OFFENSIVE CHARACTER

    • THE DECISIVE ELEMENT OF THE DEFENSE IS THE COUNTERATTACK


Security

SECURITY

NEVER PERMIT THE ENEMY TO ACQUIRE AN UNEXPECTED ADVANTAGE

FLANKS

RECONNAISSANCE/INTELLIGENCE

REAR AREAS


Economy of force

ECONOMY OF FORCE

ALLOCATE MINIMUM ESSENTIAL COMBAT POWER TO SECONDARY EFFORTS

OCCUPATION FORCES

REAR AREAS


Maneuver

MANEUVER

PLACE THE ENEMY IN A POSITION OF DISADVANTAGE THROUGH THE FLEXIBLE APPLICATION OF COMBAT POWER


Unity of command

UNITY OF COMMAND

FOR EVERY OBJECTIVE, ENSURE UNITY OF EFFORT UNDER ONE RESPONSIBLE COMMANDER

GOOD – SCHWARTZKOPF/DESERT STORM

BAD – GRENADA (MAU, RANGERS, AIRBORNE)

POOR INTEROPERABILITY


Surprise

SURPRISE

STRIKE THE ENEMY AT A TIME OR PLACE, OR IN A MANNER, FOR WHICH THEY ARE UNPREPARED

*ENEMY BECOMES AWARE TOO LATE TO REACT EFFECTIVELY

*NORMANDY WAS A SURPRISE FOR ROMMEL/WHY?


Simplicity

SIMPLICITY

STRIVE TO PREPARE CLEAR, UNCOMPLICATED PLANS AND CLEAR, CONCISE ORDERS TO ENSURE THOROUGH UNDERSTANDING


Principles of war2

PRINCIPLES OF WAR

USE THE PRINCIPLES OF WAR TO EVALUATE DEFINING ENGAGEMENTS, BATTLES, AND CAMPAIGNS THROUGHOUT THE HISTORY OF WARFARE


Levels of war
LEVELS OF WAR

  • STRATEGIC

  • OPERATIONAL

  • TACTICAL


Levels of war1
LEVELS OF WAR

  • War is a national undertaking

  • Must be coordinated from policy level to the basic execution level

  • Principles of War are appropriate to all levels of war

  • The application of the Principles of War involves different perspectives at each level of war


Strategic level of war
STRATEGIC LEVEL OF WAR

  • PERSPECTIVE IS WORLDWIDE & LONG-RANGE

  • NATION OR GROUP OF NATIONS DETERMINES NATIONAL OR ALLIANCE OBJECTIVES

  • DEVELOPS AND USES NATIONAL RESOURCES TO ACCOMPLISH OBJECTIVES


Strategic level of war1
STRATEGIC LEVEL OF WAR

  • STRATEGY GUIDES OPERATIONS:

    • ESTABLISHES AIMS

    • ALLOCATES RESOURCES

      • TANGIBLE – MATERIAL & PERSONNEL

      • INTANGIBLE – POLITICAL & PUBLIC SUPPORT

    • IMPOSES CONDITIONS

      • MAY BE POLITICAL CONCERNS THAT LIMIT USE OF FORCE, ETC.

      • MAY BE SOCIAL CONCERNS


Operational level of war
OPERATIONAL LEVEL OF WAR

  • PERSPECTIVE IS THEATER WIDE

  • JOINT, COMBINED, OR COALITION FORCES MANEUVER WITH OBJECTIVE OF ACHIEVING STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES

  • ASSISTS THE TACTICAL LEVEL BY BRINGING COHERENCE, OTHERWISE WARFARE WOULD BE A SERIES OF DISCONNECTED & UNFOCUSED TACTICAL ACTIONS

  • ASSISTS THE STRATEGIC LEVEL BY EFFECTIVELY & ECONOMICALLY ACHIEVING THE AIM OF STRATEGY


Tactical level of war the world of combat
TACTICAL LEVEL OF WAR: THE WORLD OF COMBAT

  • PERSPECTIVE IS ONE OF A BATTLE OR ENGAGEMENT WHEREBY YOU EXECUTE A PLAN OF MOVEMENT WITH FIRE SUPPORT TO ACHIEVE AN OBJECTIVE

  • PERSPECTIVE IS EXECUTING YOUR PIECE OF THE PIE, WHILE MAINTAINING THE OVERALL OPERATIONAL PERSPECTIVE


Levels of war2
LEVELS OF WAR

  • WE WILL EXAMINE WAR FROM THESE THREE PERSPECTIVES, OR LEVELS OF WAR


Forms of war strategy
FORMS OF WAR STRATEGY

  • EXHAUSTION– A strategy which seeks the gradual erosion of an enemy nation’s will or means to resist

    • GERMANY/WWII

    • VIETNAM/USA


Forms of war strategy1
FORMS OF WAR STRATEGY

  • ATTRITION– A strategy which seeks the gradual erosion of the combat power of the enemy’s armed forces


Forms of war strategy2
FORMS OF WAR STRATEGY

  • ANNIHILATION– A strategy which seeks the immediate destruction of the combat power of the enemy’s armed forces


Categories of operations
CATEGORIES OF OPERATIONS

  • OFFENSIVE – Operations designed to achieve one’s purpose by attacking the enemy


Categories of operations1
CATEGORIES OF OPERATIONS

  • DEFENSIVE – Operations designed to cause an enemy’s attack to fail


Categories of operations2
CATEGORIES OF OPERATIONS

  • JOINT – Military operations involving more than one service


Categories of operations3
CATEGORIES OF OPERATIONS

  • COMBINED – Military operations involving the armed services of more than one allied nation


Operational design
OPERATIONAL DESIGN

  • CENTER OF GRAVITY – An armed combatant is a complex organism or system. It depends upon smooth and reliable component part(s) interaction, as well as the will of the commander.


Operational design1
OPERATIONAL DESIGN

  • CENTER OF GRAVITY (Cont’d) – Some components are more vital than others to the smooth & reliable operation of the whole.


Operational design2
OPERATIONAL DESIGN

  • CENTER OF GRAVITY (Cont’d) – If these component(s) are damaged or destroyed, their loss unbalances the entire structure, producing cascading deterioration in cohesion and effectiveness. This may lead to complete failure.


Clausewitz
CLAUSEWITZ

  • “The Center of Gravity is the hub of all power and movement, on which everything depends.”


Operational design3
OPERATIONAL DESIGN

  • Line of Operation– Directional orientation of a force in relation to the enemy. The Line of Operation connects the force with its base of operations and its objective

    • Interior Lines – The ability to reinforce one’s separated units faster than one’s opponent, due to central position, superior mobility, or both


Operational design4
OPERATIONAL DESIGN

  • Culminating Point– That point in any offensive operation where the strength of the attacker no longer significantly exceeds that of the defender, and beyond which continued offensive operations risk overextension, counterattack, and defeat


Operational design5
OPERATIONAL DESIGN

  • Culminating Point:

    • You want to achieve your decisive objective(s) before reaching the culminating point

    • May occur because supplies can’t keep up with operating forces

    • May occur because lines of communication are under attack


Operational design6
OPERATIONAL DESIGN

  • As we study warfare, think about how commanders and their armies planned and executed their operations. Did they:

    • Have an enemy Center of Gravity in mind. What was the Center of Gravity for each participant in a conflict?

    • What were their lines of operation?

    • Was their a planned “culminating point?”


What is maneuver

WHAT IS MANEUVER

A PLANNED AND CONTROLLED TACTICAL, OPERATIONAL, STRATEGIC MOVEMENT OF TROOPS, WARSHIPS, AIRCRAFT, ETC., OR THE EMPLOYMENT OF FORCES TO SECURE AN ADVANTAGE—OR LEVERAGE—OVER THE ENEMY TO ACCOMPLISH THE MISSION


Forms of maneuver
FORMS OF MANEUVER

  • FRONTAL ATTACK: Offensive action that strikes the enemy across a broad front and over the most direct approaches


Forms of maneuver1
FORMS OF MANEUVER

  • PENETRATION: An offensive action that breaks through the enemy on a narrow front and seizes deep objectives to destroy the coherence of his defense


Forms of maneuver2
FORMS OF MANEUVER

  • ENVELOPMENT: An offensive action that passes around or over enemy defenses to seize objectives on his flank or rear.


Forms of maneuver3
FORMS OF MANEUVER

  • TURNING MOVEMENT: An envelopment that forces the enemy to abandon his position defenses, divert major forces and fight in two directions simultaneously

    • Attacker attempts to avoid defense

    • Attacker wants to secure terrain deep in the enemy’s rear and along lines of communication


Forms of maneuver4
FORMS OF MANEUVER

  • INFILTRATION: The covert movement of all or part of the attacking force through enemy lines to a favorable position in their rear


Types of offensive operations
TYPES OF OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS

  • MOVEMENT TO CONTACT – An offensive operation whose purpose is to gain or reestablish contact with the enemy


Types of offensive operations1
TYPES OF OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS

  • HASTY ATTACK – A planned offensive action made without pause in the forward momentum of a force upon initial contact with the enemy


Types of offensive operations2
TYPES OF OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS

  • DELIBERATE ATTACK – A thoroughly planned and coordinated offensive action whose purpose is to initiate the forward momentum of friendly forces in contact with a prepared enemy


Main supporting attacks
MAIN & SUPPORTING ATTACKS

  • MAIN ATTACK – An offensive action constituting the commander’s principal effort to achieve his purpose

    • ONE UNIT THAT IS ASSIGNED PRIMARY RESPONSIBILITY FOR ACCOMPLISHING THE FOCUS OF EFFORT


Main supporting attacks1
MAIN & SUPPORTING ATTACKS

  • SUPPORTING ATTACK – An offensive action, separate from the main attack, intended by the commander to facilitate the main attack

    • Deception

    • Fixing the enemy in position

    • Seizing key terrain

  • KHE SANH

    • DIVERTED ATTENTION OF U.S. COMMAND PRIOR TO TET OFFENSIVE


Types of offensive operations3
TYPES OF OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS

  • EXPLOITATION – An offensive action, the purpose of which is to prevent the enemy from reconstituting his defense or conducting an orderly withdrawal

    • NAPOLEON’S RETREAT FROM RUSSIA


Types of offensive operations4
TYPES OF OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS

  • PURSUIT – An offensive action, the purpose of which is to intercept and annihilate a retreating enemy which has lost its ability to effectively react


Types of defensive operations
TYPES OF DEFENSIVE OPERATIONS

  • MOBILE DEFENSE – A defense that employs a combination of offensive, defensive, and delaying action to defeat an enemy attack

    • CAUSE THE ENEMY TO REACH THE CULMINATING POINT TOO EARLY


Types of defensive operations1
TYPES OF DEFENSIVE OPERATIONS

  • AREA DEFENSE – A defense which is conducted to deny the enemy access to specific terrain for a specified time

    • “SAVING PRIVATE RYAN” – THE BRIDGE


Retrograde operations
RETROGRADE OPERATIONS

  • DELAY – A retrograde operation whose purpose is to gain time for friendly forces to reestablish the defense, cover a defending or withdrawing unit, protect a friendly unit’s flank, or to participate in an economy of force effort

    • THE SPARTANS AT THERMOPYLAE


Retrograde operations1
RETROGRADE OPERATIONS

  • WITHDRAWAL – A retrograde operation, the purpose of which is to remove subordinate units from combat, adjust defensive positions, or relocate the entire force

    • MARINES AT THE CHOSIN RESEVOIR


Retrograde operations2
RETROGRADE OPERATIONS

  • RETIREMENT – A rearward movement away from the enemy by a force not in contact


Retrograde operations3
RETROGRADE OPERATIONS

  • RETREAT – Any movement away from the enemy that is forced by the enemy. Normally very disorderly in nature

    • “This isn’t a retreat; this is an attack in another direction.”


Additional terms
ADDITIONAL TERMS

  • CAMPAIGN – A series of related military operations intended to accomplish a common objective, usually within a given space & time

  • GUERILLA WARFARE – Mil. & Paramil. Operations conducted in hostile territory by irregular and primarily indigenous forces


Additional terms1
ADDITIONAL TERMS

  • COMBAT POWER – A unit’s fighting ability. An abstraction that represents one’s judgment of a unit’s fighting ability.

    • A unit’s combat power is not constant

    • Combat power can be increased by the manner in which a unit is deployed


Additional terms2
ADDITIONAL TERMS

  • COMBAT POWER – Factors making up a unit’s combat power are:

    • Size

    • Weaponry

    • Esprit

    • Leadership

    • Training

    • Discipline

    • Other qualities


Additional terms3
ADDITIONAL TERMS

  • INSURGENCY – An organized movement aimed at the overthrow of a constituted government through use of subversion and armed conflict

  • INTELLIGENCE – Product resulting from collection, evaluation, and analysis of all available information about opposing forces or nations


Additional terms4
ADDITIONAL TERMS

  • LIMITED WAR – A war prosecuted by a belligerent who voluntarily exercises restraints on means, objective, geographical area, or time


Additional terms5
ADDITIONAL TERMS

  • LINES OF COMMUNICATION – The land, sea and/or air routes that connect a military force with its base of operations and along which logistical support is provided

    • BATTLE OF BASTOGNE/WWII


Additional terms6
ADDITIONAL TERMS

  • NATIONAL OBJECTIVES – The fundamental aims, goals, or purposes of a nation towards which a policy is directed and efforts and resources of the nation (or alliance) are applied


Additional terms7
ADDITIONAL TERMS

  • NATIONAL POLICY – A broad course of action or statements of guidance adopted by the government (or alliance) at a national level in pursuit of national objectives


Additional terms8
ADDITIONAL TERMS

  • RESERVE – A combat element intentionally withheld from action by the commander so as to be available for commitment at the decisive moment of a battle


Additional terms9
ADDITIONAL TERMS

  • STRATEGIC CONSUMPTION – The loss of available combat strength due to diversions and irreplaceable casualties imposed by the expansion of one’s base of operations

    • Guarding lines of communication

    • Garrisoning key positions in the rear


Additional terms10
ADDITIONAL TERMS

  • SUPPORTING DISTANCE – Distance by which two or more forces can be separated while retaining the ability to reinforce each other before anyone can be defeated individually.

    • Terrain

    • Relative mobility

    • Relative strength


Additional terms11
ADDITIONAL TERMS

  • TOTAL WAR – A war conducted by a belligerent in which few restraints on means, objective, geographic area, or time are exercised and in which the involvement of all resources of the society are normally commited



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