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“Sacrificed by fire”. The Holocaust. Entrance to Birkenau Concentration Camp. Early Persecution.

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the holocaust

“Sacrificed by fire”

The Holocaust

Entrance to Birkenau Concentration Camp.

slide3

Jewish lawyers line up to apply for permission to appear before the Berlin courts. New regulations set forth in the Aryan Paragraph (a series of laws enacted in April 1933 to purge Jews from various spheres of state and society) allowed only 35 to appear before the court. Berlin, Germany, April 11, 1933.

Chart illustrating the Nuremberg laws. The figures represent Germans, Jews, and Mischlinge. Germany, 1935.

slide4

Passports issued to a German Jewish couple, with "J" for "Jude" stamped on the cards. Karlsruhe, Germany, December 29, 1938.

"Aryanization" of Jewish-owned businesses: a formerly Jewish-owned store (Gummi Weil) expropriated and transferred to non-Jewish ownership (Stamm and Bassermann). Frankfurt, Germany, 1938.

slide6

Germans pass by the broken shop window of a Jewish-owned business that was destroyed during Kristallnacht in Berlin, Germany.

slide8

Arrival of political prisoners at the Oranienburg concentration camp. Oranienburg, Germany, 1933.

slide9

Roll call for newly arrived prisoners, mostly Jews arrested during Kristallnacht (the "Night of Broken Glass"), at the Buchenwald concentration camp. Buchenwald, Germany, 1938.

slide10

Many of the early concentration camps were improvised. Here, roll call is held for political prisoners aboard a ship used as a floating concentration camp. Ochstumsand camp, near Bremen, Germany, 1933 or 1934.

slide12

Buses used to transport patients to Hadamar euthanasia center. The windows were painted to prevent people from seeing those inside. Germany, between May and September 1941.

A victim of the Nazi Euthanasia Program: hospitalized in a psychiatric ward for her nonconformist beliefs and writings, she was murdered on January 26, 1944. Germany, date uncertain.

slide13

This image originates from a film produced by the Reich Propaganda Ministry. It is captioned: "A moral and religious conception of life demands the prevention of hereditarily ill offspring." Nazi propaganda aimed to create public support for the compulsory sterilization effort.

slide14

Slide taken from a Nazi propaganda filmstrip, promoting "euthanasia," prepared for the Hitler Youth. The caption says: "Mentally ill Negro (English) 16 years in an institution costing 35,000 RM [Reichsmarks]." Place and date uncertain.

slide15

This image originates from a film produced by the Reich Propaganda Ministry. It shows patients in an unidentified asylum. Their existence is described as "life without hope." The Nazis sought, through propaganda, to develop public sympathy for the Euthanasia Program.

slide16

Smoke rising from the chimney at Hadamar, one of six facilities which carried out the Nazis\' Euthanasia Program. Hadamar, Germany, probably 1941.

slide18

Deportation of Jews from Hanau, near Frankfurt am Main, to the Theresienstadt ghetto. Hanau, Germany, May 30, 1942.

slide19

A sign, in both German and Latvian, warning that people attempting to cross the fence or to contact inhabitants of the Riga ghetto will be shot. Riga, Latvia, 1941-1943.

slide20

450,000 Jews lived in the Warsaw Ghetto alone, approx. the population of Portland. They were all confined in an area smaller than the square mileage of Woodburn. By the end of the war, the Warsaw Ghetto had a population of only 36,000.

slide22

Children eating in the ghetto streets. Warsaw, Poland, between 1940 and 1943.

Dead man lying in the street in the Warsaw ghetto, probably dead of starvation

slide23

Vendor of bread in the Warsaw ghetto. This photograph was probably taken in 1941. By then, hunger was so relentless that the bread had to be protected by a cage so that it would not be stolen. (Courtesy Dr. B. Wisniewski)

slide25

Jewish resistance fighters captured by SS troops during the Warsaw ghetto uprising. Warsaw, Poland, April 19-May 16, 1943.

slide26

SS and Police Leader Juergen Stroop interrogates two Jews arrested during the Warsaw ghetto uprising. Poland, April 19-May 16, 1943.

slide27

Jewish homes in flames after the Nazis set residential buildings on fire in an effort to force Jews out of hiding during the Warsaw ghetto uprising. Poland, April 19-May 16, 1943.

slide28

Jewish partisans, survivors of the Warsaw ghetto uprising, at a family camp in Wyszkow forest. Poland, 1944.

slide30

Roundup of the Jews of Lubny, shortly before they were massacred by Einsatzgruppe detachments. This photo, originally in color, was part of a series taken by a German military photographer. Copies from this collection were later used as evidence in war crimes trials. Lubny, Soviet Union, October 16, 1941.

slide31

Members of an Einsatzkommando (mobile killing squad) before shooting a Jewish youth. The boy\'s murdered family lies in front of him; the men to the left are ethnic Germans aiding the squad. Slarow, Soviet Union, July 4, 1941.

slide32

Ukrainian Jews who were forced to undress before they were massacred by Einsatzgruppe detachments. This photo, originally in color, was part of a series taken by a German military photographer. Copies from this collection were later used as evidence in war crimes trials. Lubny, Soviet Union, October 16, 1941.

slide40

SS chief Heinrich Himmler leads an inspection of the Mauthausen concentration camp. Austria, April 27, 1941.

slide41

Prisoners at forced labor in the Siemens factory. Auschwitz camp, Poland, 1940-1944.

Forced labor in the quarry of the Mauthausen concentration camp. Austria, date uncertain.

slide42

Prisoners at forced labor in the brick factory at Neuengamme concentration camp. Germany, date uncertain.

Concentration camp survivors recreating a picture of what it was like for sleeping quarters.

slide48

Prisoners on a death march from Dachau move towards the south along the Noerdliche Muenchner street in Gruenwald. April 29th, 1945.

slide49

A view of the death march from Dachau passing through villages in the direction of Wolfratshausen. German civilians secretly photographed several death marches from the Dachau concentration camp as the prisoners moved slowly through the Bavarian towns of Gruenwald, Wolfratshausen, and Herbertshausen. Few civilians gave aid to the prisoners on the death marches. Germany, April 1945.

slide51

An American soldier stands among the corpses of prisoners exhumed from a mass grave in a ravine near Nammering. On April 19, 1945, a freight train with nearly 4,500 prisoners from Buchenwald pulled onto the railroad siding at Nammering. Hundreds of prisoners who had died on the train were buried in the mass grave along with the prisoners who were forced to carry the corpses to the ravine and were then shot. Germany, ca. May 6, 1945.

slide52

An American soldier looks at the corpses of Polish, Russian, and Hungarian Jews found in the woods near Neunburg vorm Wald. The victims were prisoners from Flossenbürg who were shot near Neunburg while on a death march. Germany, April 29, 1945.

slide53

Burned bodies of former prisoners of Rottleberode, a subcamp of Dora-Mittelbau, lie near the entrance to a barn that had been set afire by SS troops while the prisoners were on a death march. Gardelegen, Germany, April 18, 1945.

slide54

U.S. troops and German civilians from Neunburg vorm Wald attend a funeral service for Polish, Hungarian, and Russian Jews found in the forest near their town. The victims were shot by the SS while on a death march from Flossenbürg. Neunburg, Germany, April 29, 1945.

slide55

German civilians from Volary attend burial services for the Jewish women exhumed from a mass grave in the town. The victims died at the end of a death march from Helmbrechts, a subcamp of Flossenbürg. Volary, Czechoslovakia, May 11, 1945.

slide57

Soon after liberation, a Soviet physician examines Auschwitz camp survivors. Poland, February 18, 1945.

slide58

Soon after liberation, camp survivors cook in a field. Bergen-Belsen, Germany, after April 15, 1945.

slide59

Emaciated survivors of the Buchenwald concentration camp soon after the liberation of the camp. Germany, after April 11, 1945.

slide60

Piles of corpses, soon after the liberation of the Mauthausen camp. Austria, after May 5, 1945.

slide61

An inmate of the Bergen-Belsen camp, after liberation. Bergen-Belsen, Germany, after April 15, 1945.

slide62

“All evil needs to triumph is for good men to do nothing.”

Edmund Burke

Aftermath of the Holocaust

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