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Phonetics and Phonology . 1.4; 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5 (ex.) 4.1, 4.2, 4.3; Ref. 3.8 Homework: 3.6, #1-7, #8 (choose any three) [Mar 5]. Phonetics. The sound inventory — and how those sounds are formed — is one of the things we know about our language . Secondary Function?.

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phonetics and phonology

Phonetics and Phonology

1.4; 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5 (ex.)

4.1, 4.2, 4.3; Ref. 3.8

Homework: 3.6, #1-7, #8 (choose any three) [Mar 5]

  • The sound inventory — and how those sounds are formed — is one of the things we know about our language
secondary function
Secondary Function?
  • According to evolution theories, vocal process is a secondary function. Organs of speech have a primary function:

Breathing, expelling toxins and waste material, tearing flesh, masticating, swallowing

  • Lungs, teeth, tongue, uvula, interior of mouth
secondary function1
Secondary Function?
  • Only glottis & vocal folds appear primarily involved with speech
secondary function2
Secondary function?
  • Critical thinking question:
  • If language is what distinguishes humans from other life forms, can it be said that speech is a secondary function?
  • See p. 49 chart of speech production mechanism
  • We need to understand the organs and processes involved in the

* “Pulmonic egressive airstream mechanism”

language sounds
Language sounds

1. Consonants

2. Vowels

1 consonants
1. Consonants
  • * We can know three things about consonants:

A. Voicing

B. Place of articulation

C. Manner of articulation

  • We call speech sounds “voiced” when the vocal folds in the glottis vibrate as the sound is produced
  • m
  • s ~ z
  • p ~ b

(see pg. 50)

place of articulation where the sound is made
Place of articulation*(where the sound is made)

(see pg. 51)

  • Lips (bilabial)
  • Lips and teeth (labiodental)
  • Teeth (interdental)
  • Alveolar ridge (alveolar)
  • Palate (palatal)
  • Velum (velar)
  • Glottis (glottal)
manner of articulation how the sound is made
Manner of articulation*(how the sound is made)
  • Stops

stopand release air flow

too, pie, key

manner of articulation
Manner of articulation
  • Fricatives

friction restricts the airflow

fill, so, she

manner of articulation1
Manner of articulation
  • Affricates

combination of stop + friction

church; judge

manner of articulation2
Manner of articulation
  • Nasal

air passes through nose

nose; home; sing

manner of articulation3
Manner of articulation
  • Liquid
  • air flows around tongue, in a liquid manner

ride; line; all

manner of articulation4
Manner of articulation
  • Glide

tongue glides from one location to another

boyish; shower

  • Prepare the following for next class meeting:
  • Chart P. 54, Examples pp. 45-47

Know the symbols and the three-part description of sounds they represent

  • Ex. 3.6 - due Mar 5
    • Homework counts 10 pts on 2nd Midterm
2 vowels
2. Vowels*
  • Vowels are the nuclei of syllables

boat; dog; cow

we can describe vowels in three different ways
We can describe vowels in three different ways:

(see chart p. 57)

  • Tongue height* (high or low);

/a/, /i/,

/a/, /u/

  • Tongue position – front or back*

/i/ - /u/

/o/ - /e/

  • Lips rounded or unrounded*

/i/ - /u/

/e/ - /o/

  • Tongue shifts from one vowel position to another to articulate diphthongs*






[Note: Some Englishes from other regions posses different diphthongs]

  • Every language has a distinct set of language sounds
study objectives
Study objectives

We are expected to be able to know

  • the phonetic symbol for each sound of English
  • the voicing
  • place of articulation
  • manner of articulation

for each English sound

study objectives1
Study objectives
  • *Three part description of consonants
study objectives2
Study objectives
  • *Three part description of vowels:

tongue height, tongue position, and roundedness

    • disregard ‘lax’ and ‘tense’
study objectives3
Study objectives
  • This knowledge of speech mechanics and the standard manner of transcribing speech provides the foundation for all of our subsequent study of language and linguistics