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Introduction to A&P. Language of Anatomy and Physiology. Anatomical Position: Body is erect with the face and feet facing forward, palms facing forward. Directional Terms. Superior – above, upper, toward the head Inferior – below, lower, away from the head

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Language of anatomy and physiology
Language of Anatomy and Physiology

Anatomical Position: Body is erect with the face and feet facing forward, palms facing forward


Directional terms
Directional Terms

Superior – above, upper, toward the head

Inferior – below, lower, away from the head

Anterior – towards front, in front of (2 feet)

Posterior – towards back, behind (2 feet)

Ventral - belly (4 feet)

Dorsal – back (4 feet)

Medial - towards the midline, on the inner side of

Lateral – away from the midline, on the outer side of

Proximal – closer to the origin of the body part or point of attachment

Distal – farther from the origin of the body part or point of

Superficial – towards or at the body surface

Deep – away from the body surface

**Don’t forget left and right**


Regional terms
Regional Terms

Axial – head, neck, trunk

Appendicular – limbs (arms, hands, legs, feet)



Body planes sections
Body Planes (Sections)

Frontal (Coronal) – runs head to toe

divides into anterior and posterior

Sagittal – divide body into right and left from head to toe

Midsagittal (median), Parasagittal – offset from the midline

Transverse plane (Horizontal, Cross section) – runs right to left

divides into superior and inferior

Oblique – cuts made diagonally between horizontal and vertical


Body cavities
Body Cavities

Body Cavities

Within the axial region there are 2 large cavities containing organs

Dorsal body cavity (protects CNS)

Ventral body cavity (houses internal organs called viscera)




Serous membranes
Serous Membranes

Double layered membranes (called serosa) that line the walls of the ventral body cavity and cover the viscera. Remember, viscera are all the organs within the ventral body cavity

Two layers:

Parietal serosa – covers body wall

Visceral serosa – covers the organ

Serous fluid is made by the membranes and fills the space between the two layers and reduces friction during movement, so that organs can function efficiently


Serous membranes1
Serous Membranes

The serous membranes have specific names:

Parietal pleural - Pleural fluid – Visceral pleural  surround lungs

Parietal pericardium - pericardium fluid – Visceral pericardium  surround heart

Parietal peritoneum - peritoneum fluid – Visceral peritoneum  surround abdominal and pelvic cavities


Organ systems
Organ Systems

You should be able to identify the indicated structures on the torso models AND know the function and representative organs within each body system (pg 6-7, Marieb textbook)

Integumentary

Skeleton

Muscular

Nervous

Endocrine

Cardiovascular (or circulatory)

  • Lymphatic

  • Respiratory

  • Digestive

  • Urinary

  • Reproductive

  • Immune


Microscopes the cell anatomy and division
Microscopes The Cell: Anatomy and Division


Use and handling of microscope
Use and Handling of Microscope

Always carry with one hand on the arm and the other under the base

Be watchful of the electric cord and rewind when finished

Use only lens paper to clean the lens

Always start and end on the lowest power objective

Focus lowest powers (10X) with the coarse adjustment knob.

Focus high powers (40X, 100X) with the fine adjustment knob ONLY. WE DO NOT USE 100X.

Ensure that you always remove the slide when finished

Replace dust cover when finished

Place assigned microscope back in its correct location.

Total Magnification = Ocular lens Magnification X Objective Magnification







Cell cycle1
Cell Cycle

  • Interphase: period from cell formation to cell division, nuclear membrane is intact and distinct

    • G1 = time when cell undergoes rapid growth and carries out normal daily metabolic activity, varies in length of time, as G1 ends centrioles start to replicate

    • S = DNA replicates, new histones are made and assembled into chromatin

    • G2 = period of brief growth, enzymes and other proteins synthesized in preparation for cell division. Centrioles replication completed

  • Mitosis: period of nuclear division, usually takes about 2 hours, consists of four continuous phases


Mitosis
Mitosis

Be able to identify cellular processes that occur during each stage


Cytokinesis
Cytokinesis

  • Cytokinesis

    • period of cytoplasmic division, begins in late anaphase or early telophase,

    • cleavage furrow forms and cell membrane constricts where the metaphase plate was previously,

    • cytoplasm is split resulting in two new separate daughter cells


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