Do now first fill in the table below which one of these particles is not counted in the mass number
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SUBATOMIC PARTICLE. LOCATION (in the atom). RELATIVE CHARGE. MASS (amu). In nucleus. Proton. +1. 1. Neutron. In nucleus. 0. 1. Electron. electron cloud. -1. 0. Do Now : First fill in the table below. Which one of these particles is NOT counted in the mass number?.

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SUBATOMIC

PARTICLE

LOCATION

(in the atom)

RELATIVE

CHARGE

MASS

(amu)

In nucleus

Proton

+1

1

Neutron

In nucleus

0

1

Electron

electron

cloud

-1

0

Do Now: First fill in the table below.Which one of these particles is NOT counted in the mass number?


SUBATOMIC

PARTICLE

LOCATION

(in the atom)

RELATIVE

CHARGE

MASS

(amu)

In nucleus

Proton

+1

1

Neutron

In nucleus

0

1

Electron

electron

cloud

-1

0

Do Now: First fill in the table below.Which one of these particles is NOT counted in the mass number?


O

O

S

O

O

H

H

Interpretation of a Chemical Formulas

1 molecule of sulfuric acid

H2SO4

Two atoms

of hydrogen

Four atoms

of oxygen

One atom

of sulfur

How many hydrogen atoms are in three

molecules of sulfuric acid?

3 x 2 = 6 H atoms


O

O

S

O

O

H

H

Interpretation of a Chemical Formulas

1 molecule of sulfuric acid

H2SO4

Two atoms

of hydrogen

Four atoms

of oxygen

One atom

of sulfur

How many hydrogen atoms are in three

molecules of sulfuric acid?

3 x 2 = 6 H atoms


-

e

+

-

e

+

e

-

e

+

+

+

+

e

-

+

e

e

-

e

+

e

+

e

Models of the Atom

Democritus’s model

(400 B.C.)

Dalton’s model

(1803)

Thomson’s plum-pudding

model (1897)

Rutherford’s model

(1909)

Bohr’s model

(1913)

Charge-cloud model

(present)

1897 J.J. Thomson, a British

scientist, discovers the electron,

leading to his "plum-pudding"

model. He pictures electrons

embedded in a sphere of

positive electric charge.

1911 New Zealander

Ernest Rutherford states

that an atom has a dense,

positively charged nucleus.

Electrons move randomly in

the space around the nucleus.

1926 Erwin Schrodinger

develops mathematical

equations to describe the

motion of electrons in

atoms. His work leads to

the electron cloud model.

1803 John Dalton

pictures atoms as

tiny, indestructible

particles, with no

internal structure.

1913 In Niels Bohr's

model, the electrons move

in spherical orbits at fixed

distances from the nucleus.

1800 1805 ..................... 1895 1900 1905 1910 1915 1920 1925 1930 1935 1940 1945

1932 James

Chadwick, a British

physicist, confirms the

existence of neutrons,

which have no charge.

Atomic nuclei contain

neutrons and positively

charged protons.

1924 Frenchman Louis

de Broglie proposes that

moving particles like electrons

have some properties of waves.

Within a few years evidence is

collected to support his idea.

1904 Hantaro Nagaoka, a

Japanese physicist, suggests

that an atom has a central

nucleus. Electrons move in

orbits like the rings around Saturn.

Dorin, Demmin, Gabel, Chemistry The Study of Matter , 3rd Edition, 1990, page 125


Mass #

Atomic #

Isotopes =

  • atoms of the same element with different mass numbers

    (because they have different #’s of neutrons)

  • Atomic symbol:

(protons + neutrons)

(only protons)

  • Hyphen notation: boron-11


Isotopes

# of # ofatomic mass

Protons neutronsnumbernumber symbol

A

= proton = neutron (no electrons shown)

Fill in the blanks below…

B


11

10

5B

5B

Isotopes

# of # ofatomic mass

Protons neutronsnumbernumber symbol

A

= proton = neutron (no electrons shown)

5

5

5

10

Fill in the blanks below…

5

6

5

11

B

What’s the hyphen notation for A? boron-10


11

10

5B

5B

Isotopes

# of # ofatomic mass

Protons neutronsnumbernumber symbol

A

= proton = neutron (no electrons shown)

5

5

5

10

Fill in the blanks below…

5

6

5

11

B

What’s the hyphen notation for A? boron-10


+

+

+

+

+

Carbon-14

Carbon-12

+

Neutrons 6

Protons 6

Electrons6

Neutrons ?

Protons 6

Electrons6

+

+

+

+

+

+

Let’s compare carbon-12 & carbon-14

How many neutrons are in carbon-14? 8 n

Electrons

Electrons

Nucleus

Nucleus


+

+

+

+

+

Carbon-14

Carbon-12

+

Neutrons 6

Protons 6

Electrons6

Neutrons8

Protons 6

Electrons6

+

+

+

+

+

+

Let’s compare carbon-12 & carbon-14

How many neutrons are in carbon-14? 8 n

Electrons

Electrons

Nucleus

Nucleus


Mass #

Mass #

Atomic #

Atomic #

Carbon-12

Carbon-14


Isotopes – reviewHow many neutrons in chlorine-37?20n

  • Chlorine-37

    • atomic #: 17

    • mass #: 37

    • # of protons: 17

    • # of electrons: 17

    • # of neutrons: ???

Courtesy Christy Johannesson www.nisd.net/communicationsarts/pages/chem


Isotopes – reviewHow many neutrons in chlorine-37?20n

  • Chlorine-37

    • atomic #: 17

    • mass #: 37

    • # of protons: 17

    • # of electrons: 17

    • # of neutrons: 20

Courtesy Christy Johannesson www.nisd.net/communicationsarts/pages/chem


IONS

  • Ions are atoms that have lost or gained electrons.

  • An atom that loses an electron becomes a positive ion (CATION)

  • An atom that gains an electron becomes a negative ion (ANION)


REVIEW OF SUB/SUPER-SCRIPTS

E

mass #

charge

atomic #

formula

HOMEWORK –

  • #’s 29-33,38,40


EXAMPLES OF IONS

  • A magnesium atom loses two e- and becomes which cation?

Mg2+

  • 12 protons

  • 12 neutrons (usually)

  • 12 electrons


EXAMPLES OF IONS

A magnesium atom loses two e- and becomes which cation?

Mg2+

  • 12 protons

  • 12 neutrons (usually)

  • 12 electrons


EXAMPLES OF IONS

A chlorine atom gains one e- and becomes which anion?

Cl1-

  • 17 protons

  • 18 neutrons (usually)

  • 17 electrons


EXAMPLES OF IONS

A chlorine atom gains one e- and becomes which anion?

Cl1-

  • 17 protons

  • 18 neutrons (usually)

  • 17 electrons


EXAMPLES OF IONS

If magnesium and chloride bond together, what’s the formula of the compound they form?

MgCl2

magnesium chloride…

more on this next chapter 


EXAMPLES OF IONS

If magnesium and chloride bond together, what’s the formula of the compound they form?

MgCl2

magnesium chloride…

more on this next chapter 


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