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Do NOW: In your notebook, compare and contrast DNA and RNA HW out on desk!!. R N A. What is RNA? Ribonucleic acid is genetic information . It is similar to DNA because it is also made of a sugar phosphate backbone and nitrogenous bases . . The structural differences between DNA and RNA.

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Presentation Transcript
slide2

R

N

A

slide3

What is RNA?Ribonucleic acid is genetic information.It is similar to DNA because it is also made of a sugar phosphate backbone and nitrogenous bases.

the structural differences between dna and rna
The structural differences between DNA and RNA
  • Sugars
    • - DNA has Deoxyribose in its backbone
    • - RNA has Ribose in its backbone.
    • “deoxy” means without oxygen.
the structural differences between dna and rna1
The structural differences between DNA and RNA
  • 2. Nitrogenous Bases
    • - DNA has Thymine
    • - RNA has Uracil
    • They both have Adenine, Cytosine, and Guanine
the structural differences between dna and rna2
The structural differences between DNA and RNA
  • 3. Structure
    • - DNA is a double strand
    • - RNA is a single strand
    • This allows RNA to leave the nucleus
amino acid
Amino Acid
  • A compound with an amino group (-NH2)on one end and a carboxyl group (-COOH) on the other end
  • A subunit (monomer) from which proteins (polymers) are assembled
proteins
Proteins
  • Polymers made up of amino acids that perform a wide variety of cellular functions
  • Linked together bypeptide bonds
  • Also called polypeptides
  • One of the classes of organic macromolecules that function as structural and control elements in living systems
  • Needed by the body for:
    • Growth and repair
    • To make up enzymes (Biological catalysts)
play video
Play Video
  • DNA to Protein
online activity
Online Activity
  • Go to:

http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/begin/dna/transcribe/

Read the directions carefully and perform the activity. You will transcribe and translate a gene!

types of rna
Types of RNA
  • 1. Messenger RNA - mRNA
    • - carries genetic information from the nucleus to the ribosome for protein synthesis
types of rna1
Types of RNA
  • 2. Ribosomal RNA - rRNA
    • - carries genetic information for making newribosome
types of rna2
Types of RNA
  • 3. Transfer RNA - tRNA
    • -Matches with mRNA during translation
    • - Connected to amino acids
    • -Amino acids of neighboring tRNA form a chain to make proteins
slide18

DNA

Transcription

description dna transcription is the process of creating messenger rna mrna
DescriptionDNA transcription is the process of creating messenger RNA(mRNA).

LocationDNA transcription occurs in the nucleus because that is where DNA is located.

slide20

How Transcription Works1. The DNA strand unwinds2. Complementary RNA nitrogenous bases match up with one side of the DNA strand3. The RNA is released from the DNA strand.4. The DNA rewinds.5. The mRNA leaves the nucleus.

interpreting the mrna
Interpreting the mRNA
  • Strands of mRNA are divided into sections of 3 nitrogenous bases called codons.
  • Codon– 3 bases that code for a specific amino acid.
characteristics of trna
Characteristics of tRNA
  • tRNA has anticodons that compliment the mRNAcodons
  • tRNA is attached to an Amino acid that will form a protein chain.
translation and protein synthesis
Translation and Protein Synthesis

Translation is the process of translating the genetic code of mRNA into tRNA.

Protein Synthesis is the process of amino acids connected to tRNAbonding to form a protein.

Translation and Protein Synthesis happen simultaneously.

steps in translation and protein synthesis
Steps in Translation and Protein Synthesis
  • mRNA enters the ribosome
  • Complimentary tRNA attaches to the start codon on mRNA
  • The mRNA moves through the ribosome
steps in translation and protein synthesis continued
Steps in Translation and Protein Synthesis (continued)
  • The next mRNA codon is matched with the complimentarytRNA
  • Amino acids connected to both tRNA strands connect to each other
translation protein synthesis continued
Translation – Protein Synthesis (continued)

6. The process continues until a stopcodon is reached, releasing the protein.

study guide expectations
Study Guide Expectations
  • Groups of 3 (you choose)!
  • Responsibilities – Create a Review packet for Test 2!
    • 1  Cell Cycle (Mitosis, Meiosis)
    • 2  DNA Structure, DNA Replication, History
    • 3  RNAvs DNA Comparison, Transcription, Translation
  • 1 hr
    • Work on own section for 20 min  Rotate
    • Read/edit/add to section 15 min  Rotate
    • Read/edit/add to section 15 min
    • Last 10 minutes  compile and PRINT (4 copies)
      • 1 copy for each team member, and one to turn in to the teacher
    • If you finish early, quiz each other!
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