Achievements of the First Year. The Development of Children (5 th ed.) Cole, Cole & Lightfoot Chapter 5. Overview of the Journey. Biological changes Perceptual-motor development Cognitive changes Relationship with the social world The next bio-social-behavioral shift.
The Development of Children (5th ed.)
Cole, Cole & Lightfoot
Size and Shape
Bone and Muscle
Babies born in Malawi face conditions such as widespread mal-nutrition, chronic poverty, disease, and a rising HIV/AIDS infection rate. As a result of this complicated array of factors, Malawian infants grow at a slower rate than their American counterparts.
Reaching and Grasping
Babies seem to perceive that different objects offer different affordances – properties that lend themselves to particular ways of interacting with them
Contour following(exact shape)
1. Baby creeps and uses legs:
2. Baby gains control of upper body:
4. Baby is mobile!
3. Baby coordinates
upper and lower body movements:
Piaget’s Constructivist Explanation
Are Infants Precocious? Challenges to Piaget’s Theory
Growth of Memory
For example, an infant younger than 8 months of age does not search for an object that has been removed from sight
Infant does not track the movement of the train in the tunnel, is happy to see the train again, but is not surprised that it is now a different color or shape.
Lack of Representation
After an infant has successfully searched for an object hidden in one location, the object is then hidden in a new location while the infant watches.
The infant will search for the object where it was previously found.
1. Infant does not search for objects that have been removed from sight.
2. Infant orients to place where objects have been removed from sight.
3. Infant will reach for a partially hidden object but stops if it disappears.
4. Infant will search for a completely hidden object; keeps searching the original location of the object even if it is moved to another location in full view of the infant.
5. Infant will search for an object after seeing it moved but not if it is moved in secret.
6. Infant will search for a hidden object, certain that it exists somewhere.
Streri & Spelke, 1988
Infants (4 months) looked longer at the end display when there was only one doll,
suggesting that they had mentally calculated the number of dolls
that ought to be behind the screen. [Wynn, 1992]
Eimas & Quinn, 1994Behl-Chadha et al., 1995
different categories, despite the fact that they looked very much alike
Mandler & McDonough, 1993
In one study (Rovee-Collier et al.), a group of 3-month-old babies were trained to activate a mobile by kicking.
The researchers then let an entire month elapse before putting the babies into the experimental situation again.
They knew that this was more than enough time for the babies to forget their training.
However, 1 day before being retested, the 3-month-olds were shown the mobile as a reminder (without allowing them to kick).
The next day, these infants started kicking as soon as the ribbon was tied to one of their legs.
The mere sight of the mobile a day earlier seemed to remind the babies of what they had learned 1 month earlier.
Table Talk 4
1. What do you conclude about the ability of babies to think?
2. If babies have memory, what kinds of things are appropriate for parents to “teach” to their child?
Zone of Proximal Development (Vygotsky)