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Lipids – Part 2. McCafferty. LIPID DIGESTION & ABSORPTION. Absorbable forms:. Remember “hydrolysis?”. Mouth Mechanical: chewing, mixed w/saliva for lubrication Chemical: . Stomach Mechanical: peristalsis/churning  ____________ Chemical: .

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slide4
Mouth
  • Mechanical: chewing, mixed w/saliva for lubrication
  • Chemical:
slide5
Stomach
  • Mechanical: peristalsis/churning ____________
  • Chemical:
slide6
For digestion to continue, these fat droplets must be emulsified
  • Small Intestine
  • Fat droplets enter small intestine
  • gallbladder contracts and releases __________
    • synthesized in the ______,
    • stored in the __________
    • made from _________
slide8
Once fat is emulsified into the liquid, enzymes can work:
    • Pancreas releases: pancreatic lipase
    • TG _________________________________
  • (DRAW BELOW:)
lipid absorption
Lipid Absorption
  • Small lipid fragments:
    • Glycerol and Short Chain FAs (SCFAs)
    • Absorbed directly into the bloodstream
    • Portal vein to liver
lipid absorption1
Lipid Absorption
  • Big lipid fragments
    • Monoglycerides and LCFAs need help!
    • If absorbed into the blood:
    • They need to be emulsified.
big lipid fragments cont
Big lipid fragments, cont.
  • Enter intestinal cell, re-form TG
  • TG is incorporated into Lipoprotein carriers: Chylomicrons (CM)
    • Lipoprotein = lipid associated w/proteins
      • “Shuttle”
    • Protein and phospholipid act as emulsifiers for the other lipids
slide16
Lymph vessel   
  • The tissues can extract what they need from the CMs.
  • CM remnants 
lipoproteins overview
Lipoproteins -- Overview
  • Lipids bound to protein
  • Spherical structure –
    • “Shuttle”
classes of lipoproteins
Classes of Lipoproteins
  • What is denser, lipid or protein?
  • CM chylomicron –
    • made in intestinal cells
    • Transports ________TG from ________ to tissues
      • eg. adipose and muscle
  • VLDL – very low density lipoprotein
    • made in liver
    • Carries TG to tissues
slide20
LDL –
    • Made in liver
    • Carries
  • HDL –
    • Made in liver & intestine
    • Associated w/ risk for CVD
recommended levels
Recommended Levels
  • Total cholesterol
    • For  30 yrs
    • For  30 yrs
    • (for kids  170 mg/dl)
  • LDL cholesterol
  • HDL cholesterol
  • Triglycerides (TG)
  • *note controversy surrounding these numbers
slide24
LDL to HDL ratio
    • Men:
    • Women:
  • LDL cholesterol increases with
  • HDL cholesterol increases with
storage use of fat
STORAGE & USE OF FAT
  • Overview:
    • TG is main form of stored E in the body
    • Adipose –
    • When body needs fuel
storing fat
Storing Fat
  • TG in blood (in CMs and VLDL)
    • (need to get TG into adipose & muscle cells)
  • INSULIN present
    • Activates enzyme on blood vessel wall:
    • LPL Lipoprotein Lipase
    • LPL binds w/CM or VLDL and extracts TG
    • Breaks down TG  glycerol & 3FAs  enter cell
storing fat1
Storing Fat
  • In adipose, TG  fat droplets
storing fat2
Storing Fat
  • In adipose, TG 
  • Adipose cells stretch to hold  fat
  • Once filled to max capacity, cells begin to multiply
mobilizing stored fat
Mobilizing Stored Fat
  • TG in adipose; want to release FAs for E
    • Activates enzyme inside adipose cell
    • HSL Hormone-sensitive lipase
    • HSL breaks down TG  G & FAs
    • FAs  blood
      • Hydrophobic, so bound to protein carrier: albumin
      •  cells  metabolized for E
using fat to make atp

USING FAT TO MAKE ATP

What kind of fat gets used for energy?

What is triglyceride made of?

slide33

______________

C-C C-C C-C

C-C C-C C-C

C-C C-C C-C

C-C C-C C-C

C-C C-C C-C

C-C C-C C-C

C-C C-C C-C

C-C C-C C-C

C-C-C

_____________

_____________

C-C

Krebs

ATP

ETS

slide34
Glycerol is converted to pyruvate
    • can either glucose or acetyl CoA/Krebs/ATP
  • Fatty Acids (too large to enter Krebs cycle)
    • can ONLY enter energy metabolism at
so what s the point
So what’s the point?
  • If we are out of glycogen and need to make glucose for those glucose-dependent tissues, we aren’t going to be able to use fatty acids to do it.
summary of atp production from fat
Summary of ATP Production From Fat
  • Fat is comprised mainly of TG molecules
    • Glycerol and 3 FAs
  • Glycerol (3C) enters energy metabolism at pyruvate
  • FAs (broken down to 2C units) enter at acetyl CoA
  • Fat can provide a very small amount of glucose form the glycerol
  • Complete oxidation of TG yields ATP, CO2, H2O and body heat.
cardiovascular disease general term for diseases of the heart and blood vessels
Cardiovascular Disease – general term for diseases of the heart and blood vessels
  • Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) – AKA Coronary Artery Disease– lack of blood flow to the network of blood vessels surrounding (and serving) the heart.
    • major cause: atherosclerosis.
  • Atherosclerosis – thickening and hardening of the walls of the blood vessels 2 deposits of fatty material (plaque)
    • esp. coronary and carotid arteries and abdominal aorta
slide40
Heart Attack – Lack of blood flow to the heart muscle resulting in tissue damage and sometimes sudden death
  • Stroke –blood flow to a part of the brain is cut off
    • “brain attack.”
    • Usually due to atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries.
atherosclerosis
Atherosclerosis
  • Slow, progressive disease which begins in childhood and takes decades to advance.
    • Coronary arteries are most often affected.
slide42
“Response to Injury Theory”
    • Fatty streaks form along arterial walls
    • Proliferation of smooth muscle cells, WBCs and calcium  plaques
      • Plaques cause the arteries to lose elasticity
slide43
Thrombosis:
  • Embolism:
slide44
Angina:
    • pain, pressure, and tightness in chest, back, neck, and arms
    • caused by
  • Hypertension
slide45
The FOUR major risk factors:
  • Smoking
    •  HDL,  BP, increases platelet stickiness (clots)
  • Hypertension
    •  cardiac work,  arterial damage
    • Risk :
slide46
3. Elevated blood cholesterol
  • major lipid in plaque

4. Lack of regular exercise

  • Sedentary people (60% of US) have double the risk of developing CVD as active people.
slide48
Other risk factors include:
  • Heredity – parent or sibling male under 55, woman under 65
  • Gender – male
    • women post menopause without estrogen
  • Age
  • Stress and personality type
    • Type “A” personality, stress, depression
  • Elevated triglycerides
    • Inversely correlated w/HDL’s
slide49
Homocysteine
    • Strong + correlation w/premature disease
    • with inadequate B vitamins
      • (folate, B6 and B12 – fruits and veggies, lean meats)
    • Also:
exercise
Exercise
  • Strengthens heart muscle
  • Lower body fat (also affects diabetes)
  • Better glucose control
  •  blood pressure
  •  stress
  • Exercisers are less likely to be smokers
  • Improved lipid profile (LDL, HDL)
  •  blood clotting
dietary prevention of heart disease
Dietary Prevention of Heart Disease
  • Fat
  • Saturated fat
  • Mono vs. Poly
  • Trans FAs
  • Sodium
slide52
Alcohol
  • Antioxidants and Phytochemicals
  • Fiber
  • Fish
  • Soy
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