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CHINA GO TEAM VISIT 2014 PBN Explained. Erwin Lassooij ICAO PBN Programme Manager. PBN. Conventional. Need for PBN. Extract from Report of the 44 th DGCA Conference …

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CHINA GO TEAM VISIT 2014 PBN Explained

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China go team visit 2014 pbn explained

CHINA GO TEAM VISIT 2014PBN Explained

Erwin Lassooij

ICAO PBN Programme Manager


China go team visit 2014 pbn explained

PBN

Conventional

Need for PBN

Extract from Report of the 44th DGCA Conference …

“During the 44th Conference of Directors General of Civil Aviation, Asia and Pacific Region in October 2007, IATA expressed that implementation of Performance Based Navigation provides significant safety, efficiency and environmental benefits to operators and service providers.”

2


China go team visit 2014 pbn explained

E

F

D

C

PBN Routes

A

Shorter Routes ….

More Routes Possible ...

B

  • Efficiency and Flexibility - Improve efficiency and flexibility by reducing reliability on the locations of ground-based navigation aids

3


China go team visit 2014 pbn explained

4


China go team visit 2014 pbn explained

Benefits to ANSPs

  • PBN benefits to ANSPs are recognized and being utilized globally. According to the FAA, PBN provides the following benefits:

    • Increase predictability of operations

    • Reduce controller/aircraft communications

    • Reduce fuel burn with more continuous vertical descents

    • Reduce miles flown in Terminal Radar Approach Control airspace

    • Reduce interaction between dependent flows in multiplex airspace

  • “RNAV and RNP specifications facilitate more efficient design of airspace and procedures which collectively result in improved safety, access, capacity, predictability, operational efficiency, and environmental effects. Specifically, improved access and flexibility for point-to-point operations help enhance reliability and reduce delays by defining more precise terminal area procedures. They also provide fuel and emissions savings.”

5


Commitment from stakeholders

Commitment from Stakeholders

  • ICAO

  • IATA

  • CANSO

  • IFATCA

  • IFALPA

  • IBAC

  • ICCAIA

  • ACI

  • FHA

  • FSF


But we need also work together with military

But we need also work together with military……….


China go team visit 2014 pbn explained

Although Civil and Military Operations are Different…..


Civil and military support each other

Civil and Military Support Each Other!


Need for cooperation aviation growth 1990 to 2010 to 2030

Need for Cooperation - Aviation Growth 1990 to 2010 to 2030


From old to new

From old to new


China go team visit 2014 pbn explained

History

:

Growing demand for solutions to airspace congestion

Growing fuel efficiency requirements

Growing Environmental requirements

Growing demand for RNAV approaches (safety, accessibility)

Most can be met with current technology, but standardization and operational requirements have to be put into place

12


Are we now going the right way

F

U

T

U

R

E

Europe

B-RNAV

US

Boeing

P-RNAV

Australia

US-RNAV

China

Airbus

RNP10

Canada

Japan

RNP 4

South

America

Are we now going the right way?

P

R

E

S

E

N

T

RNP

RNP/RNAV

Not safe, not efficient, costly, confusing


Icao recognizes the problems

ICAO recognizes the problems

  • Need for focal point in ICAO to address problems experienced with RNP Concept (GNSSP/4 recommendation 1/1)

  • ICAO approves establishment of Required Navigation Performance Special Operational Requirements Study Group (RNPSORSG) as coordinating group


Adjustment to the rnp concept required

Adjustment to the RNP concept required

  • Clear distinction between operations that require performance monitoring and alerting and operations that don’t require performance monitoring and alerting

  • Harmonization of current RNAV and RNP operations

  • Development of new navigation specifications to meet operational demand.

  • Need for clear operational approval requirements

  • Need for clear implementation guidance


Agreeing pbn

Require on-board

performance monitoring

+ alerting

Do not require on-board

performance monitoring

+ alerting

Agreeing PBN

  • PBN specifies RNAV system performance i.e. accuracy, integrity, continuity, availability + functionality; - written up in navigation specifications

This is different than the RNP concept, which stressed navigation accuracy and ‘stopped’ at required performance. However, PBN is anchored in detailed navigation specifications,which contain performanceand functionalityrequirements.

RNP X specifications

RNAV X specifications


China go team visit 2014 pbn explained

Navigation Specification by Phase of Flight


Components of pbn concept

3

NAVIGATION

APPLICATION

NAVIGATION

SPECIFICATION

2

NAVAID

INFRASTRUCTURE

1

Components of PBN Concept

3

1

2


Components of pbn concept1

3

NAVIGATION

APPLICATION

NAVIGATION

SPECIFICATION

2

NAVAID

INFRASTRUCTURE

1

Components of PBN Concept

3

1

2


Components of pbn concept navaid infrastructure

Components of PBN Concept- Navaid Infrastructure -

  • Ground-based Navigation Aids (Navaids)

    • VOR; DME; (Not NDB)

  • Space-based Navaids

    • GNSS

      • ABAS and SBAS

NAVAID

INFRASTRUCTURE

2

1


Components of pbn concept2

3

NAVIGATION

APPLICATION

NAVIGATION

SPECIFICATION

2

NAVAID

INFRASTRUCTURE

1

Components of PBN Concept

3

1

2


Components of pbn concept navigation specification

Components of PBN Concept- Navigation Specification -

International Navigation Specifications published in Volume II of PBN Manual

Previous

RNP

Concept

  • PERFORMANCE

  • Functionalities

  • Navigation Sensors

  • Air crew requirements

NAVIGATION

SPECIFICATION

3

2

Document used by State as basis for developing Certification & Operational Approval


Components of pbn concept navigation specification1

RNAV

RNP

Components of PBN Concept- Navigation Specification

NAVIGATION

SPECIFICATION

3

2

On-Board performance Monitoring and Alerting

  • On-board performance monitoring and alertingallows the air crew to detect that the RNP system is not achieving the navigation performance required of the RNP system


Rnav application

RNAV Application

RNAV 1

1 Nautical Mile 95% of flight time

Track Centerline

1 Nautical Mile 95% of flight time


Rnp application

RNP Application

RNP 1

Alert to Pilot

1 Nautical Mile 95% of flight time

Track Centerline

1 Nautical Mile 95% of flight time

The Key Difference:

On-Board Performance Monitoring and Alerting


China go team visit 2014 pbn explained

Navigation Specification

ICAO

NAVIGATION

SPECIFICATIONS

RNAV SPECIFICATIONS

RNP SPECIFICATIONS


Components of pbn concept3

3

NAVIGATION

APPLICATION

NAVIGATION

SPECIFICATION

2

NAVAID

INFRASTRUCTURE

1

Components of PBN Concept

3

1

2


Components of pbn concept navigation application

Components of PBN Concept- Navigation Application -

NAVIGATION

APPLICATION

1

3

  • The APPLICATION (use of) the Navigation Specification and Navaid Infrastructure -

    • For example: Routes based on RNAV and RNP Specifications (these rely on the Navaid Infrastructure);

    • For example: SIDs/STARs based on RNAV and RNP Specifications;

    • For example: Approach procedures based on RNP Specifications


Route spacing icao 4444

Route Spacing – ICAO 4444

5.4.1.2.1.5 RNAV operations where RNP is specified on parallel tracks or ATS routes.

Within designated airspace or on designated routes, where RNP is specified, lateral separation between RNAV-equipped aircraft may be obtained by requiring aircraft to be established on the center lines of parallel tracks or ATS routes spaced at a distance which ensures that the protected airspace of the tracks or ATS routes does not overlap.


Route spacing

Route Spacing


Route spacing1

Route Spacing

Generic model used to determine separation and ATS Route spacing


Lateral separation

PANS OPS Doc 8168, Vol II, Part III

RNP area semi-width is determined by the formula: 1.5(XTT) + BV

Where: BV = buffer value (see PANS-OPS Vol II)

The calculation for a RNAV 2 enroute is shown below:

XTT = 2.00 NM; BV= 2.00 NM

area semi-width = 1.5(2.00) + 2.00 = 5.00 NM

= 10 NM between route centerlines

Lateral Separation


Airway vs air route

Airway vs Air Route

10km

10km

10km

10km

10km

10km

Offset area


Pbn route integration

PBN Route Integration

10km

10km

10km

10km

  • Air Route –

    • integration within existing air route structure

  • RNAV 2 - 9.3km offset

    • Doc8168- (1.5 x XTT2.0nm +buffer 2.0nm)

9.3km

9.3km

Offset area


Pbn route integration1

PBN Route Integration

10km

10km

10km

10km

  • Air Route –

    • integration within existing air route structure

  • RNAV 2 – 18.6km between2routes

    • (doc8168- (1.5 x XTT2.0 +buffer 2.00) x 2 = 10nm)

18.6 km

Offset area


Components of pbn concept4

3

NAVIGATION

APPLICATION

NAVIGATION

SPECIFICATION

2

NAVAID

INFRASTRUCTURE

1

Components of PBN Concept

3

1

2


Context of pbn in airspace implementation

Airspace Concept

COM

NAV

SUR

ATM

NAVIGATION

APPLICATION

PBN

NAVIGATION

SPECIFICATION

NAVAID

INFRASTRUCTURE

Context of PBN in Airspace implementation


Pbn implementation processes

PBN Implementation Processes


China go team visit 2014 pbn explained

Airspace Concept Activity Overview


China go team visit 2014 pbn explained

  • Safety

  • Capacity

  • Efficiency

  • Environment

  • Accessibility

1 - Agree on Operational Requirements


Objectives implementation example

Safety

Capacity

Efficiency

Environment

Access

Reduce Controlled Flight Into Terrain via lateral & vertical course guidance to runway

Reduce delays that result from excessive “levelling off” flight profiles

by implementing CCO/CDO

Improve airport and airspace access in all weather conditions

RNP approach (LNAV/VNAV) to replace circling approach

Reduce noise over sensitive area

Increase number of air traffic routes to reduce congestion; accommodate projected growth

Use of RF in intermediate or missed approach segment

RNAV-1 SID that allows continuous climb to enroute

Parallel

RNAV-2 ATS routes between cities

RNP approach allowing lower minima

Objectives  Implementation Example


Who develops an airspace concept

Who develops an Airspace Concept?

  • A team effort by representatives of various organizations and technical specialties

  • Composition of the team depends on the scale and nature of the project

    • A simple airspace concept (e.g. a SID, STAR and IAP) would have experts from

      • ANSP (including PANS OPS procedure designer)

      • Military

      • civil aviation regulator

      • airport operator

      • operators’ representative

    • A more extensive Airspace Concept ( e.g. new runway, plan for terminal and enroute airspace) could also include

      • safety management system experts

      • simulation studies experts

      • environmental personnel


China go team visit 2014 pbn explained

Create Airspace Design Team

  • Lead by ATM/airspace specialist

  • ATC (Approach and Area controllers)

  • ATM & CNS specialist

  • Procedure designers

  • Technical pilots

  • ……

Depending on airspace structure, military are consulted first


China go team visit 2014 pbn explained

  • Arrivals

  • Departures

  • Transit

  • VFR

  • Military

AVOID trying to fit the routes

into the existing airspace volumes


Concept validation

CONCEPT VALIDATION


China go team visit 2014 pbn explained

  • Have the Safety and Performance Criteria been satisfied;

  • Have the required changes been made to the ATM system;

  • Have the required changes been made to the ground navigation systems;

  • Have the both Civil and military pilots and controllers received appropriate training.

  • Do the assumptions and conditions upon which the Airspace Concept has been developed still pertain. If not, re-consult, including with military


Pbn documentation framework

PBN Documentation Framework

  • PANS Ops Volume II (Doc 8168)

  • PBN Manual (Doc 9613) 4th Edition

  • RNP AR Procedure Design Manual (Doc 9905)

  • PBN Ops Approval Manual (Doc 9997)*

  • Manual on PBN Use in Airspace Design (Doc 9992)*

  • CDO Manual (Doc 9931)

  • CCO Manual (Doc 9993)*

  • GNSS Manual (Doc 9849)

  • Procedure QA Manual (Vol 1 to Vol 6)

  • (Doc 9906)

  • * New

4th Edition


Pbn products t o assist with implementation

PBN Productsto assist with implementation

  • PBN related Publications and Annexes

    • Bundled specifically for Stakeholders

    • Hard and soft copies

  • eLibrary Solutions

  • PBN ikit

  • CBT Training (iLearn)

  • Available through ICAO e-store: www.store1.icao.int


Pbn products and services

PBN Products and Services

  • PBN Start

  • PBN Training

  • PBN Publication and Bundles

  • PBN Workshops

  • PBN Implementation Assistance

  • PBN Financial Aid

Provided through ICAO HQ, Regional Offices, FPPs, ICAO Authorized Training Centers, On-line ICAO Store


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • Economy and Air traffic is growing in fast speed

  • With conventional nav systems much extra airspace is needed from military; PBN can reduce this requirement

  • PBN allows flexible implementation, can give benefits to both

  • Successful implementation requires all stake holders involvement, including military


So where are we today

So where are we today?


Global pbn instrument approach growth

Global PBN Instrument Approach Growth


Global pbn sid star growth

Global PBN SID & STAR Growth


Pbn versus conventional routes

PBN Versus Conventional Routes


China go team visit 2014 pbn explained

…But still not implemented worldwide!


Icao pbn focus

B

A

C

D

E

ICAO PBN Focus

Support to Regional Offices,

Sub-Offices, FPP Offices

Training - Formal courses and computer-based learning packages

PBN symposia, workshops, guidance material

ICAO

Focus

Continuing PBN standards development and amendment

Support for the ASBU provisions enabled by PBN


Pbn endorsement ifp organizations

PBN Endorsement – IFP Organizations

  • Endorsement of Instrument procedure design organizations

  • Consistent with other endorsements (training)

  • To assist States with PBN Implementation

  • Organizations listed on ICAO PBN Web-site:

    • Airways New Zealand

    • ASAP s.r.o. (Slovakia)

    • CAAC Central-Southern Airport Design & Research Institute (China)

    • GE Aviation (USA)

    • Hughes Aerospace (USA)

    • Ingegneria Dei SistemiS.p.A (Italy)

    • China Aviation System technology (CAST), China

Name of Organization


Purpose

Purpose

  • Increase the implementation of PBN through:

    • Improved capability in the use of the PBN concept in planning / designing airspace

    • Improved understanding of Stakeholder involvement in PBN implementation planning


A37 11 pbn global targets

A37-11 PBN Global Targets

  • States complete a PBN Implementation Plan to achieve:

    • Approach procedures with vertical guidance (APV (Baro-VNAV) including LNAV-only minima for all instrument runway ends by 2016:

      • 30% by 2010, 70% by 2014

    • Straight-in LNAV only procedures as an exception to the above where there is:

      • no local altimeter setting; and

      • no aircraft equipped for APV with max certified mass of 5700kg or more


Global implementation status

Global Implementation Status

Only 102 States (or 53%)

have a PBN Implementation Plan


China go team visit 2014 pbn explained

66% of the APAC States have a PBN Implementation Plan

PBN Plan

Australia

Bangladesh

Cambodia

China

Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea

Fiji

India

Indonesia

Japan

Lao People’s Democratic Republic

Malaysia

Maldives

Mongolia

Myanmar

Nepal

New Zealand

Pakistan

Papua New Guinea

Philippines

Republic of Korea

Singapore

Sri Lanka

Thailand

Tonga

Vietnam

NO PBN Plan

Afghanistan

Bhutan

Brunei Darussalam

Cook Islands

Kiribati

Marshall Islandsi

Micronesia (Federated States of)

Nauru

Palau

Samoa

Solomon Islands

Timor-Leste

Vanuatu


What has icao done to help states with implementation

What has ICAO done to help States with implementation? . . .


Expected visit outcome

Expected Visit Outcome

  • Understand application of PBN airspace design concepts

  • Apply Airspace designs from the workshop as basis for implementation

  • Increased civil/military

    cooperation


Flight procedures programme fpp

Flight Procedures Programme (FPP)

  • Beijing, China

    • Now in Regional Sub-Office

  • Dakar, Senegal

    • FPP Office established June 2014


Icao iata pbn go teams

ICAO/IATA PBN GO Teams

  • Expert Teams Visits to address specific implementation issues

    • Phase I (PBN Requirements Assessment) completed

    • Phase II (Airspace Design and Operations Approvals) will be completed in early July (Last visit to China)

  • Future GO Team Visits will be specific to Region and State requirements for PBN Implementation

    • On request basis

  • Focus/Services provided will be:

    • PBN Assessments / Gap Analysis

    • PBN Plan Development

    • Training

    • Implementation Assistance

Completed Global Visits

Phase (I and II)

Thailand (2)UAE (2)

MexicoKenya

GermanyIndia

EcuadorRussia

South AfricaUSA (CAR/SAM)


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