General anatomy of the eye degenerative diseases of human retina
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Jennifer Hsieh Psy 159 Physiological Basis of Perception 1/11/2005. General Anatomy of the Eye & Degenerative Diseases of Human Retina . Background. Key Terms. Vitreous humor – fluid in major chamber of eye. Retina – encodes the info as a neural signal to transmit to the brain.

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General Anatomy of the Eye & Degenerative Diseases of Human Retina

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General anatomy of the eye degenerative diseases of human retina

Jennifer Hsieh

Psy 159

Physiological Basis of Perception

1/11/2005

General Anatomy of the Eye & Degenerative Diseases of Human Retina


Background

Background


Key terms

Key Terms

  • Vitreous humor – fluid in major chamber of eye.

  • Retina – encodes the info as a neural signal to transmit to the brain.

  • Macula lutea – pigmented central region of the retina containing fovea.

  • Fovea – greatest capacity for fine detail discrimination.

  • Optic nerves – bundle of ganglion cell axons carrying visual info.

  • Cornea – where light enters the eye.

  • Iris – a smooth ring of muscle with a central opening.

  • Pupil – central opening.

  • Lens – helps the cornea to produce a focused image.


Anatomy of the retina

Anatomy of the Retina

Photoreceptors  (Rods and Cones)

Outer Plexiform Layer

Inner Nuclear Layer

Inner Plexiform Layer 

Ganglion Cells 

R

H

B

A

G


The retina

The Retina

  • Receptors – absorb photons & begin to create neural signals.

  • Outer plexiform layer – the receptors terminate here.

  • Inner nuclear layer -

    • Horizontal cells: responsive to lights across a wide area of the retina.

    • Bipolar cells: response can be either hyperpolarizing (light falling directly on it) or depolarizing (light falling to the side).

    • Amacrine cells: produce response (transient / phasic) when the light level changed.

  • Inner plexiform layer – signals within bipolar cells conducted to here.

  • Ganglion cells – receive the end products of all the previous processing and communicate it to the brain.


Retinal photo ophthalmoscope

Retinal Photo - Ophthalmoscope


Degenerative diseases of the human retina

Degenerative diseases of the human retina

  • In some eye diseases, the retina becomes compromised, and the degenerative changes lead to serious damage to the nerve cells that carry the messages about the visual image to the brain.


Age related macular degeneration

Age Related Macular Degeneration

Age related macular degeneration - the macular area and fovea become compromised due to the pigment epithelium behind the retina degenerating and forming white spots.


Glaucoma

Glaucoma

Glaucoma - the pressure within the eye becomes elevated. The pressure rises because the anterior chamber of the eye cannot exchange fluid properly by the normal aqueous outflow methods.


Retinitis pigmentosa

Retinitis Pigmentosa

Retinits pigmentosa - a hereditary disease of the retina. Most of the faulty genes affect the rod photoreceptors. Characteristic pathology is the occurrence of black pigment in the peripheral retina and thinned blood vessels.


Diabetic retinopathy

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy - a side effect of diabetes that can cause blindness. The vital nourishing blood vessels of the eye become damaged, distorted and multiply in uncontrollable ways.


Now that we are done take the quiz

Now that we are done, take the quiz!

  • 1. The _____ transmits electrical impulses from the eye to the brain.A. LensB. Optic nerveC. Vitreous humor

  • 2. The eye works a lot like a...A. CameraB. ComputerC. Projector

  • 3. Below is a view of the fundus of the retina in a patient with ______.

    A. Glaucoma

    B. Healthy Eye (Normal)

    C. Macular degeneration

B

A

A


References

References

  • Hagerman, G.S. and Johnson, L.V. (1991) The photoreceptor-retinal pigmented epithelium interface. "Principles and Practice of Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision" (Eds. Heckenlively, J.R. and Arden, G.B.) Mosby Year Book, St. Louis, 1991, pp. 53-68.

  • Henkind , P., Hansen, R.I. and Szalay, J. (1979) Ocular circulation. In "Physiology of the human eye and visual system" (Ed. Records, R.E.) pp 98-155. Harper & Row, new York.

  • Kolb, H. (1991) The neural organization of the human retina. In "Principles and Practices of Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision" (Eds. Heckenlively, J.R. and Arden, G.B.) Mosby Year Book Inc. , St. Louis, pp. 25-52.

  • Polyak, S.L. (1941) The Retina. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

  • Van Buren, J.M. (1963) The retinal ganglion cell layer. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.


General anatomy of the eye degenerative diseases of human retina

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