B classes of levers
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b. Classes of levers. Class I, II, and III – based on efficiency. See Holt, Page 87. Class I. Class II. Class III. B. Bone Development. (Reading pp 157-160) . Bone formation = Ossification. . Two types. Intramembranous and Endochondral See – Lab 3 section “ossification”.

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b. Classes of levers

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b. Classes of levers

Class I, II, and III – based on efficiency.

See Holt, Page 87


Class I


Class II


Class III


B. Bone Development.

(Reading pp 157-160)


Bone formation = Ossification.


Two types

Intramembranous and Endochondral

See – Lab 3 section “ossification”


C. Injuries and disease.

(Reading page 189)


1. The knee joint.

a. anterior cruciate

b. posterior cruciate

c. lateral collateral

d. medialcollateral


2. Dislocation = tearing of ligaments that keep bones in place (bone is forced out of position.)


3. Sprain = Damage to ligaments. (tearing or straining tendons or ligaments)


4. Fractures

a. compound - bone sticks out through the skin

b. simple - bone doesn't stick out through the skin


Metatarsal fracture


Clavicle Fracture


18 year old girl


12 year old boy


12 year old girl with buckle fracture of radius


5. Arthritis

a. rheumatoid arthritis - inflammation of synovial membrane- articular hyaline cartilage destroyed


6. Rickets - from deficiency of vitamin D preventing ossification. The bones actually bend because cartilage still dominates. Vitamin D is needed for calcium and phosphorus absorption.


Summary:

What are the functions of the skeleton?


1) framework for support


2) attachment of skeletal muscles for movement


3) protection of vital organs


4) bone marrow is site of blood cell formation


5) bone stores minerals needed for metabolism


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