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LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS JAPAN PART 1B: TSUNAMIS. Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA . NATURAL HAZARDS THAT PLACE JAPAN’S COMMUNITIES AT RISK. EARTHQUAKES/TSUNAMIS. GOAL: DISASTER RESILIENCE. TYPHOONS. FLOODS.

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Lessons learned from past notable disasters japan part 1b tsunamis

LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS JAPANPART 1B: TSUNAMIS

Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA 


NATURAL HAZARDS THAT PLACE JAPAN’S COMMUNITIES AT RISK

EARTHQUAKES/TSUNAMIS

GOAL: DISASTER RESILIENCE

TYPHOONS

FLOODS

ENACT AND IMPLEMENT POLICIES HAVING HIGH BENEFIT/COST FOR COMMUNITY RESILIENCE

LANDSLIDES

VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS

GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE




Tsunamis

TSUNAMIS

EARTHQUAKES THAT GENERATE TSUNAMIS OCCUR FREQUENTLY IN JAPAN AS A RESULT OF COMPLEX SUBDUCTION OF THE PACIFIC, PHILIPPINE AND EURASIAN PLATES


  • PREPAREDNESS

  • PROTECTION

  • EARLY WARNING

  • EMERGENCY RESPONSE

  • RECOVERY and

  • RECONSTRUCTION

TSUNAMI RISK

POLICY OPTIONS

ACCEPTABLE RISK

RISK

UNACCEPTABLE RISK

GOAL: TSUNAMI DISASTER RESILIENCE

JAPAN’S COMMUNITIES

DATA BASES AND INFORMATION

HAZARDS: GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC DEFORMATION TSUNAMI RUN UP AFTERSHOCKS


CAUSES OF DAMAGE

INADEQUATE RESISTANCE TO HORIZONTAL GROUND SHAKING

SOIL AMPLIFICATION

PERMANENT DISPLACEMENT (SURFACE FAULTING & GROUND FAILURE)

IRREGULARITIES IN ELEVATION AND PLAN

EARTHQUAKES

TSUNAMI WAVE RUNUP

“DISASTER LABORATORIES”

POOR DETAILING AND WEAK CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS

FRAGILITY OF NON-STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS


CAUSES OF DAMAGE

HIGH VELOCITY IMPACT OF INCOMING WAVES

INLAND DISTANCE OF WAVE RUNUP

VERTICAL HEIGHT OF WAVE RUNUP

INADEQUATE RESISTANCE OF BUILDINGS

TSUNAMIS

FLOODING

“DISASTER LABORATORIES”

INADEQUATE HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL EVACUATION

PROXIMITY TO SOURCE OF TSUNAMI


Lessons learned about disaster resilience
LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCE

  • ALL TSUNAMIS.

  • DISASTER-INTELLIGENT COMMUNITIES USE TIMELYEARLY WARNING BASED ON CRITICAL INFORM-ATION TO EVACUATE PEOPLE AND PREPARE.



Some of japan s notable tsunami experiences

SOME OF JAPAN’S NOTABLE TSUNAMI EXPERIENCES ISSUING TSUNAMI WARNINGS

JUNE 16, 1964

MARCH 11, 2011


The niigata earthquake june 16 1964
THE NIIGATA EARTHQUAKE: JUNE 16, 1964 ISSUING TSUNAMI WARNINGS

  • The M7.5 Niigata earthquake devastated Niigata, located 50 km south of the epicenter, mainly as a result of massive soil failure and tsunami waves.

  • The port of Niigata was completely destroyed by the tsunami waves..


Port of niigata
PORT OF NIIGATA ISSUING TSUNAMI WARNINGS


The tohoku disaster january 17 1995
THE TOHOKU DISASTER: ISSUING TSUNAMI WARNINGS JANUARY. 17, 1995

  • The M9.0 Tohoku earthquake was huge, but its ground shaking did NOT cause the disaster that killed an estimated 21,000 people …

  • The tsunami generated by the earthquake did!


The tsunami

THE TSUNAMI ISSUING TSUNAMI WARNINGS

Wave run up reached 40 meters in some locations


The tsunami the beginning
THE TSUNAMI—the beginning ISSUING TSUNAMI WARNINGS

  • The tsunami slammed the east coast of Japan, sweeping away boats, cars, homes and people, before racing across the Pacific ---


An offshore epicenter
AN OFFSHORE EPICENTER ISSUING TSUNAMI WARNINGS

  • It only took seconds for the P-and S-waves to reach Sendai, and about 15 minutes for the tsunami waves, but what a difference in damage..



Tsunami waves coast of northern japan
TSUNAMI WAVES: COAST OF NORTHERN JAPAN ISSUING TSUNAMI WARNINGS


Oarai inundated by tsunami
OARAI INUNDATED BY TSUNAMI ISSUING TSUNAMI WARNINGS


Tsunami wavs sendai airport
TSUNAMI WAVS: SENDAI AIRPORT ISSUING TSUNAMI WARNINGS




Tsunami damage
TSUNAMI DAMAGE ISSUING TSUNAMI WARNINGS


Unexpected impacts
UNEXPECTED IMPACTS ISSUING TSUNAMI WARNINGS

  • The nuclear power plants in the region shut down automatically; an immediate evacuation of tens of thousands in 10- 20 km radii from the plant followed.

  • Radiation levels at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear facility were 1,000 times normal levels.



Immediate societal impacts
IMMEDIATE SOCIETAL IMPACTS ISSUING TSUNAMI WARNINGS

  • Four and one-half million left without electricity.

  • One and one-half million without water.

  • Metro, trains, and airport shut down.


Urgent societal needs
URGENT SOCIETAL NEEDS ISSUING TSUNAMI WARNINGS

  • Vertical evacuation to escape the tsunami wave run up, the only way to save lives, was not available to most people.


Urgent societal needs1
URGENT SOCIETAL NEEDS ISSUING TSUNAMI WARNINGS

  • Mass care and health care needs were urgent because of the high radiation levels.

  • Deaths, as expected reached tens of thousands.


The tsunami the end
THE TSUNAMI---the end ISSUING TSUNAMI WARNINGS

  • --- The tsunami then raced across the Pacific at 822 -1222 kph (500 to 800 mph) to arrive 5-7 hours later in Alaska and Hawaii and other parts of the West Coast of the USA, and 18 hours later along the coast of South America.


The tsunami traveled across the pacific
THE TSUNAMI TRAVELED ACROSS THE PACIFIC ISSUING TSUNAMI WARNINGS


Tsunami wave path
TSUNAMI WAVE PATH ISSUING TSUNAMI WARNINGS


Hawaii
HAWAII ISSUING TSUNAMI WARNINGS

  • The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center reported that water rushed ashore in Honolulu, swamping the beach in Waikiki and surging over the break wall in the world-famous resort, BUT stopping short of the area's high-rise hotels.


Lessons learned for disaster resilience
LESSONS LEARNED FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE ISSUING TSUNAMI WARNINGS

  • ALL TSUNAMIS

  • CAPACITY FOR INTELLIGENT EMERGENCY RESPONSE IS ESSENTIAL FOR COMMUNITY RESILIENCE.


Emergency response a nightmare
EMERGENCY RESPONSE--- A NIGHTMARE! ISSUING TSUNAMI WARNINGS

  • The fires and explosions in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear facility and radiation levels that were 1,000 times normal levels created a “nightmare disaster response scenario” for the Government of Japan.


March 12

MARCH 12 ISSUING TSUNAMI WARNINGS

EVACUATION AND MASS CARE


Immediately after the earthquake and tsunami, the Japanese Government began implementing its post- disaster response plans in a highly-charged, possible “nightmare nuclear disaster” environment.


Urgent need for search and rescue
URGENT NEED FOR SEARCH AND RESCUE

  • Even though, with so many people (about 20,000) missing over a wide area after the tsunami, search and rescue was a moral imperative and an urgent need,---

  • IT WAS UNUSUALLY DIFFICULT!


Evacuation
EVACUATION

  • Approximately 450,000 people were evacuated by military personnel from areas damaged in the quake and in a 33 km radius around the nuclear facilities



Japan s search and rescue teams
JAPAN’S SEARCH AND RESCUE TEAMS

  • The Japanese urban search and rescue teams, which had been helping in the search for Christchurch, New Zealand earthquake victims for two weeks, headed back to Japan to help with the S and R.


Japan s search and rescue
JAPAN’S SEARCH AND RESCUE

  • Approximately 50,000 members of Japan’s Self Defense Forces were mobilized immediately and sent to the hardest hit areas.


Japan s search and rescue1
JAPAN’S SEARCH AND RESCUE

  • Tokushu Kyuunan Tai, the search and rescue unit of the Japan Coast Guard, was dispatched to accelerate search and rescue operations.






March 12 17

MARCH 12-17

69 COUNTRIES PROMISED HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE, BUT WERE STYMIED BY THE RISK FROM RADIATION, LACK OF GAS, AND WEATHER


Search and rescue operations, evacuations, and humanitarian assistance on local and global scales…All were limited by the possibility of a “nightmare nuclear disaster.”


All actions were conducted with knowledge of the high risk associated with the possibility of a significant radiation release and a nuclear melt down.


Mass care
MASS CARE associated with the possibility of a significant radiation release and a nuclear melt down.

  • Shortages, closed roads, and lack of fuel made it very difficult to meet survivors’ needs for food, water, medicine, and electricity.


Lessons learned for disaster resilience1
LESSONS LEARNED FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE associated with the possibility of a significant radiation release and a nuclear melt down.

  • ALL TSUNAMIS

  • CAPACITY FOR RECOVERY AND RECONSTRUCTIONIS ESSENTIAL FOR COMMUNITY RESILIENCE.


The result a catastrophe
THE RESULT: A CATASTROPHE associated with the possibility of a significant radiation release and a nuclear melt down.

  • Japan’s social, technical, administrative, political, legal, health care, and economic systems were tested to their limits by the socio-economic impacts of the earthquake and tsunami, the radiation, and the harsh weather.


Summary of the disaster
SUMMARY OF THE DISASTER associated with the possibility of a significant radiation release and a nuclear melt down.

  • The tsunami wave run up together with the earthquake ground shaking caused major damage to 1.2 million buildings.

  • Simultaneously, wide spread fires burned out of control.

  • Economic losses were estimated at $574 billion.


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