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CHAPTER. 1. What is Criminal Justice?. Criminal Justice:. … in its broadest sense, the aspects of social justice that concern violations of the criminal law …. Criminal Justice:.

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  • What is Criminal Justice?

Criminal justice

Criminal Justice:

… in its broadest sense, the aspects of social justice that concern violations of the criminal law …

Criminal justice1

Criminal Justice:

… in the strictest sense, the criminal (penal) law, the law of criminal procedure, and the array of procedures and activities having to do with the enforcement of this body of law.

Criminal justice2

Criminal Justice:

  • … the study of criminal justice also includes the following viewpoints:

  • individual rights

  • public order


What is the

Definition of Crime?



… conduct in violation of the criminal laws of a state, the federal government, or a local jurisdiction, for which there is no legally accepted justification or excuse.

American history

American History

A Brief Overview of Social

Phenomena 1850 - Present

  • 1850 - 1880: social upheaval caused by immigration.

  • 1960s-1970s: rights of ethnic, racial minorities, women, war protests.

American history1

American History

A Brief Overview of Social Phenomena 1850 - Present

  • The 1980s saw a dramatic increase in sale and use of

  • illicit drugs.

  • The 1990s saw violent encounters among citizens and lawenforcement agents.

American history2

American History

A Brief Overview of Social

Phenomena 1850 - Present

  • The year 2000 saw an emphasison responsibility andpunishment of offenders.

  • Terrorism on American soil is of central concern today.

What is justice

What is Justice?



… principle of fairness,

the ideal of moral equity.

Social justice

Social Justice:

  • Civil Justice

  • Criminal Justice

Civil justice

Civil Justice:

…deals with fairness in relationships between citizens, government agencies, and business in private matters.

Criminal justice3

Criminal Justice:

…concern for violations of the criminal law.

The theme of this book

The Theme of this Book

Individual Rights vs. Public Order

The theme of this book1


Individual Freedom vs. Public Safety

The Theme of this Book

Individual rights advocates

Individual Rights Advocates:

…seek to protect personal freedoms within the process of criminal justice.

Public order advocates

Public Order Advocates:

…suggest that under certain circumstances involving a criminal threat to public safety, the interests of society should take precedence over individual rights.

American criminal justice the system

Law Enforcement



American Criminal Justice: The System

American criminal justice the consensus model

This model assumes cooperation between all components of the system towards a common goal.

American Criminal Justice: The Consensus Model

American criminal justice the conflict model

All components of the criminal justice system are self-serving and compete for limited resources.

American Criminal Justice: The Conflict Model

American criminal justice criminal case processing

American Criminal Justice: Criminal Case Processing

Police investigation and arrest

proactivelaw enforcement


reactivelaw enforcement

Police: Investigation and Arrest

Police become aware of a violation of law.

Types of police responses proactive

The police, usually during routine patrol, observe a suspicious situation or a crime in progress.

Types of Police Responses: Proactive

Types of police responses reactive

The police respond to a request for assistance either as a result of a phone call from a citizen, or are flagged down while on patrol.

Types of Police Responses: Reactive



…in criminal proceedings, a writ issued by a judicial officer directing a law enforcement officer to perform a specified act and affording him/her protection from damage if he/she performs it.



…the taking of a person into physical custody by authority of law, for the purpose of charging the person with a criminal offense…



…or a delinquent act or status offense terminating with the recording of a specific offense.

Miranda v arizona 1966

Miranda v. Arizona (1966)

The U.S. Supreme Court reversed the conviction of Ernesto Miranda and thereby established guidelines for the police to follow in the interrogation of suspects.

Miranda v arizona 19661

Miranda v. Arizona (1966)

  • You have the right to remain silent.

  • Anything you say can and will be used against you in a court of law.

  • You have the right to talk to an attorney and have him/her present while you are being questioned.

Miranda v arizona 19662

Miranda v. Arizona (1966)

After the warnings have been given, the following questions should be asked.

  • Do you understand each of these rights I have explained to you?

  • Having these rights in mind, do you wish to talk to us now?


At time of booking, the accused’s name, address, time and place of arrest, and charges are entered into the police log.

Fingerprints and photos can also be taken.


An administrative process officially recording an entry into detention after arrest.

First appearance

Usually occurs within 24 hours of arrest.

Charges against the suspect are read.

Accused is advised of his/her rights.

First Appearance

First appearance1

An attorney is appointed if the accused is indigent.

An opportunity for bail may be provided.

First Appearance


to ensure that the accused appears in court for trial


Preliminary hearing grand jury

The U.S. Constitution provides that the state must prove that there is probable cause to believe that the accused committed the crime.

Preliminary Hearing: Grand Jury

Probable cause

Probable Cause:

…a set of facts and circumstances that would induce a reasonably intelligent and prudent person to believe that a particular other person has committed a specific crime.

Preliminary hearing grand jury1

When the state proves that there is probable cause, then there is sufficient reason to try the person as charged. The Grand Jury can issue an indictment.

Preliminary Hearing: Grand Jury

Preliminary hearing

Whether a crime was committed.

Whether the crime occurred within the territorial jurisdiction of the court.

Whether there are reasonable groundsto believe that the defendant committed the crime.

Preliminary Hearing

A proceeding before a judicial officer in which three matters must be decided:


It takes place after a preliminary hearing or indictment.

Charges are read.



An attorney is provided if the defendant has not yet retained one.

The defendant is asked to enter a plea.

If the plea is “not guilty,” than a trial date is set.




…the hearing before a court having jurisdiction in a criminal case, in which the identity of the defendant is established, the defendant is informed of the charge(s) and of his/her rights, and the defendant is required to enter a plea.



…in some instances, it also means any appearance in court prior to trial in criminal proceedings.


If the defendant enters a plea of “ not guilty” at the arraignment, the proceedings will move forward to the trial phase.



At this phase, the burden of proof is on the state to prove “beyond a reasonable doubt” that the defendant committed the crime.



In criminal proceedings, a trial is the examination in a court of the issues of fact and law in a case, for the purpose of reaching a judgment of conviction or acquittal of the defendant(s).






Community Corrections


Once convicted, judge imposes punishment in the form of:


Sentences can be served:

consecutively - one after another

concurrently-served at the same time




…a component of the criminal justice system in which the offender serves the sentence imposed.



  • probation

  • prison

  • community corrections

  • parole

Due process

Due Process:

…asserts that fundamental principles of justice must be guaranteed in any criminal proceeding, and that the administration of the law in a criminal case must not violate individual rights.

Due process1

Due Process:

…aright guaranteed by the 4th, 5th, 6th, and 14th Amendments to the U.S. Constitution, and generally understood, in legal contexts, to mean the due course of legal proceedings according to the rules and forms which have been established for the protection of private rights.




The fourteenth amendment

The Fourteenth Amendment

“No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States, nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws….”

The fourth amendment

The Fourth Amendment

  • The prohibition against unreasonable searches and seizures.

  • The exclusionary ruleprohibits the use of items obtained as a result of an unreasonable search and seizure as evidence against a criminal defendant.

The fifth amendment

The Fifth Amendment

  • bar against double jeopardy

  • privilege against forced self-incrimination

The sixth amendment

The Sixth Amendment

  • right to a jury trial

  • right to a public trial

  • right to a speedy trial

  • right to confront witnesses

  • right to compulsory process to obtain witnesses

The sixth amendment1

The Sixth Amendment

  • right to assistance of an attorney in felony cases

  • right to assistance of an attorney in misdemeanor cases in which a prison term is imposed

The eighth amendment

The Eighth Amendment

It prohibits cruel and unusual punishment.


The Limits of Criminal Sanctions, 1968

by Herbert Packer

Crime control model

“Primary attention paid to the efficiency with which the criminal process operates to screen suspects, determine guilt, and secure appropriate dispositions of persons convicted of crime.” (Packer)

Crime Control Model

Due process model

To protect the innocent:

“each of its successive stages is designed to present formidable impedimentsto carrying the accused any further along in the process.” (Packer)

Due Process Model

Crime control model1

assembly line justice

focus on system efficiency

Crime Control Model

Due process model1

obstacle course justice

focus on individual rights

Due Process Model

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