Senior design team 20 solar powered phase change compressor
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Senior Design Team 20 Solar Powered Phase-Change Compressor. Final Design Presentation April 18, 2013. Addison Bender Jesse Diaz Emmanuel Ferdinand Sponsor: Grant Peacock Faculty Advisor: Dr. Juan Ordonez and John Dascomb. Project Definition. Need Statement:

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Senior Design Team 20 Solar Powered Phase-Change Compressor

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Senior design team 20 solar powered phase change compressor

Senior Design Team 20Solar Powered Phase-Change Compressor

Final Design Presentation

April 18, 2013

Addison Bender

Jesse Diaz

Emmanuel Ferdinand

Sponsor: Grant Peacock

Faculty Advisor: Dr. Juan Ordonez

and John Dascomb


Project definition

Project Definition

  • Need Statement:

    • Design a compressor for a refrigeration system that can be powered by solar energy.

  • Objective: 5,000 BTU/hr (1465 W)

  • Solar-Thermal Driven

  • Budget: $2000

Final Design Presentation


Concept development

Concept Development

  • Solar energy → electricity → mechanical power

  • Solar energy → mechanical power

Final Design Presentation


Concept development1

Concept Development

  • Piston

  • Pros:

    • High stress & high cycling

    • High temperature

    • Large displacement

  • Cons:

    • Precision machining

    • Possibility of refrigerant escaping

Final Design Presentation


Concept development2

Concept Development

  • Elastic Membrane

  • Pros:

    • Larger tolerances

    • Sealed by non-permeable material

  • Cons:

    • High temperature

    • Fatigue effects

    • Smaller displacement

Final Design Presentation


System diagram

System Diagram

Condenser

Compressor

Air Conditioner

Capillary

Refrigerant Loop

/

Steam Source

Evaporator

Steam Flow

Fan

Fan Control

Control Circuit

Microcontroller

Power Supply (120V AC)

Solenoid Valve

Relay

Steam vent

Final Design Presentation


Senior design team 20 solar powered phase change compressor

Design Concept

  • Vent is closed

    • Steam pressure compresses refrigerant

  • Vent is opened

    • Steam chamber pressure drops below refrigerant chamber pressure.

  • Vent is closed, cycle repeats.

R134a From evaporator

R134a to condenser

High Pressure Steam from solar boiler

Vented steam

Final Design Presentation


Control circuit for solenoid

Control Circuit for Solenoid

Final Design Presentation

  • Arduino R3 Uno Microcontroller

    • Open and closed valve at 1 Hz

    • 2N222 Transistor and 5.6 kΩ Resistor

  • Solid State Relay

    • Control voltage (5 – 24 VDC)

    • Load Voltage (19-264 VAC)

    • Load Current (10 A)


Thermodynamic model refrigeration cycle

Thermodynamic Model: Refrigeration Cycle

T

  • Isentropic compression

  • Isobaric heat rejection

  • Adiabatic expansion

  • Isobaric heat absorption

  • ∆P = 433 kPa

  • m = 0.009 kg/s

1

3

4

2

T2 = 32.9°C

P2 = 771 kPa

T3 = 30°C

P3 = 771 kPa

T1 = 4°C

P1 = 338 kPa

T4 = 4°C

P4 = 338 kPa

s

R134a Ideal Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle

Final Design Presentation


Modeling diaphragm deflection

Modeling Diaphragm Deflection

  • Elasticity of material is used to predict deflection

  • V = 1.67 x 10-4 m3

  • f = 2Hz

  • D = 12cm, δ = 2.7 cm, t = 1.3 cm

D

t

δ

Final Design Presentation


Sealing

Sealing

  • Bolt material: steel

    • Yield strength= 45,000 psi

    • Tensile stress area= 0.025 in2

  • Max chamber pressure= 150 psi

    • Load on bolts = P*A = 707 lb.

    • Load on 1 bolt =707N/6= 117.8 lb.

    • Stress on 1 bolt = F/A= 4,713 psi

Final Design Presentation


Testing procedure

Testing Procedure

  • Static pressure test: 800kPa

  • Steam Test: membrane rupture

  • Connect to compressed air supply

  • Add refrigerant to selected pressure

  • Run solenoid at preset duty cycle

  • Increment air flow and monitor refrigerant pressure

  • Increase refrigerant pressure and repeat

Final Design Presentation


Results

Results

Final Design Presentation


Results1

Results

Final Design Presentation


Desired solar power

Desired Solar Power

  • Thermal efficiency based on a dish size of 6.47 m2

  • Theoretical solar concentrator would generate ~6,900 W

Final Design Presentation


Failure modes of diaphragm compressor

Failure Modes of Diaphragm Compressor

Final Design Presentation


Feasibility of pcc

Feasibility of PCC

  • Duty cycle too high

    • 5 cycles/hour is considered HIGH for membrane

    • Design requires 3600 cycles/hour

  • Too much steam needed to generate 145 Watts

  • ($1-$3)/Watt for PV

  • $19.93/Watt for Actual

Final Design Presentation


Summary

Summary

  • Compression was achieved, though less than target.

  • Membrane concept is much less stable than piston.

  • System is more prone to failure than solar-electric generation due to high use components.

Final Design Presentation


Recommendations

Recommendations

  • Include a control valve to control steam in

  • Implement feedback control based on low and high pressure sensors

  • Test membrane component

    • Property degradation with high cycle loading

    • Performance at high temperature

  • Incorporate solar generated steam source

Final Design Presentation


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