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Motivating Operations. Week 8: Antecedent considerations. Motivation Operations. Also referred to as: Value altering effect: establishing/abolishing Behavior altering effect: Frequency Establishing operation: Evocative effect Abolishing operation: Abative effects. Some clarification.

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Motivating operations

Motivating Operations

Week 8: Antecedent considerations

Motivation operations
Motivation Operations

  • Also referred to as:

    • Value altering effect: establishing/abolishing

    • Behavior altering effect: Frequency

  • Establishing operation: Evocative effect

  • Abolishing operation: Abative effects

Some clarification
Some clarification

  • Not just Frequency: Magnitude

  • Behavior altering effect is not just due to encounter with change in reinforcement frequency: Extinction!

  • SD is not = MO

    • SD: Differential availability of reinforcement for a behavior

    • MO: differential reinforcer effectiveness of an environmental event.

Three types of motivating operations
Three types of Motivating Operations

  • Surrogate: Stimulus paired with another

    • Not likely to be important to study

  • Reflexive: Stimulus that preceded some form of worsening improvement

    • Thanks and holding doors open for people

  • Transitive: Stimulus that alters value of another stimulus

    • Must be just as available (Dr. asking for scalpel)

8 umo

  • Sex

  • Temperature

  • Pain

  • Food

  • Water

  • Sleep

  • Activity

  • Oxygen

  • Key Point: These are not SD’s because to have an SD you must have an Sdelta (neutral stimulus) to signal unavailability of reinforcement is a possible

Altered states
Altered States

  • Drugs

  • Anxiety

  • Do not cause behavior! They interact with environment however.

    • Moderation Variables.

What about treatment
What about treatment?

  • You will never get rid of the UMO effects

  • You will only weaken momentarily

  • Must development treatment that focuses on acceptable behavior to gain access to the reinforcer

Umos punishment
UMOs & Punishment

  • Difficult to know for sure

  • Observation of the abative effect requires the evocative effect of an MO for reinforcement with respect to the punished behavior.

Multiple effects
Multiple Effects

  • Evocative effect: Do what you gotta do

  • Punishment effect: Decreases probability you engage in the behavior that preceded the MO

Smirc model

  • Stimulus

  • Motiviating Operation

  • Individual

  • Response

  • Consequence

Behavior analytic problem solving model

Behavior Analytic Problem-Solving Model

Beginning to pull it all together


  • Contextual Variables:

    • Behavior occurs in some contexts but not others

  • Antecedent Stimuli: Environmental Triggers

  • Individual Mediators: Internal Triggers

    • UMO & CMO

  • Individual Behavior Deficits:

    • Try to reframe all behavior this way (your turn)

  • Behavior:

    • Not enough R+ or too much response effort

  • Consequences:

    • Consider function (careful of response topography and response class).

3 types of stimuli
3 Types of Stimuli

  • Discriminative Stimulus: Reinforcement is available (SD)

  • Neutral Stimulus: No reinforcement or punishment is available (SΔ )

  • Warning Stimulus: Punishments is available

Discrimination training
Discrimination Training

  • Learning when to behave and when not to behave

  • Reinforcing a response in presence of one stimulus but not another

    e. g. Colors

What about you
What about you?

  • When have you engaged in stimulus discrimination today?

Stimulus control
Stimulus Control

  • Degree of correlation between stimulus and response

  • Degree to which a behavior occurs in presence of a specific stimulus

    • e.g. Traffic light

  • Stimulus Generalization Gradient: Probability of response reinforced in one stimulus condition are emitted in the presence of untrained stimuli.

What about you1
What about you?

  • What behaviors do you have that are under stimulus control?

Let s discriminate

Let’s discriminate

Learning an Alien Language

Effective discrimination training
Effective discrimination training

  • Choose distinct signals

  • Minimize opportunities for error

    • Minimize stimulus array

  • Maximize Number of learning trials

  • Make use of rules

Stimulus generalization
Stimulus Generalization

  • Responding similarly across two or more stimuli

    √ The more the stimuli are alike the more likely the response to take place

    e.g. finding your car

What about you2
What about you?

  • What behaviors/responses do you generalize across settings?

  • Can that response always be generalized?

  • Should that response always be generalized?

Classes of stimuli
Classes of Stimuli

Stimulus Class: Set of stimuli with similar characteristics in common

AKA: Concept

Equivalence Class: Set of stimuli with different characteristics, but represent the same thing

e.g. Written name, verbal name, picture of person

Inducing stimuli classes
Inducing Stimuli Classes

√ Explicit training is not necessarily needed to induce stimulus control across stimuli

  • Symmetry: A = B

  • Reflexivity: A = A

  • Transivity: A = B; B = C; A = C

Discriminating discrimination among other discriminative stimuli
Discriminating discrimination among other discriminative stimuli

Stimulus discrimination and escape

e.g. hailing a taxi out in the cold: Must have no patrons in it.

Stimulus discrimination and punishment

e.g. Boiling pan: Do not touch or you get burned.

Stimulus discrimination and differential reinforcement
Stimulus Discrimination and Differential Reinforcement stimuli

DR- 2 responses (right way and wrong way)and 1 stimulus

e.g. Asking mom for money

SD- Two stimuli (Right signal wrong Signal) and 1 response

e.g. Asking mom OR dad for money?

Requirements for stimulus control
Requirements for stimulus control stimuli

  • Attention of the subject

  • Sensory capabilities of the subject

  • The stimulus must stand out relative to other stimuli.