The Role of Animal Agriculture in the Bioeconomy
Download
1 / 25

The Role of Animal Agriculture in the Bioeconomy - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 109 Views
  • Uploaded on

The Role of Animal Agriculture in the Bioeconomy. Allen Trenkle Iowa State University. Historical Background of Biofuels. Mid-80’s Expansion of wet milling of corn producing high-fructose sugar Co-products mostly exported Established value of co-products as livestock feeds

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'The Role of Animal Agriculture in the Bioeconomy' - hayes


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

The Role of Animal Agriculture in the Bioeconomy

Allen Trenkle

Iowa State University


Historical background of biofuels
Historical Background of Biofuels

  • Mid-80’s

    • Expansion of wet milling of corn producing high-fructose sugar

    • Co-products mostly exported

    • Established value of co-products as livestock feeds

      • Cattle feeders wanted price related to price of corn

  • Early-90’s

    • Interest in ethanol production from dry-grind plants

      • Slow to develop in Iowa (Developed in MN, NE, SD)

    • Established value of co-products as cattle feed

    • Promoted integration of ethanol plants and cattle feeding

      • First Iowa dry-grind plants coordinated with cattle production

  • Late 2004 to present

    • Rapid expansion of building ethanol plants

    • Concentration of ownership of ethanol plants

    • Co-products evolved as commodity feeds


Changes in Agriculture

  • Animal power to tractors

    • From growing fuel raised on farm to importing fuel

  • 2. Crops: Corn-Small grains-Meadow to less crop diversification

    • Change to corn and soybeans

    • Use of ag chemicals and external sources of energy

    • Concentration of livestock into larger units

      • All farms had livestock to few farms having livestock

  • 3. Next change: Production of biofuels

    • Alter expectations of agriculture

    • Alter cropping systems

    • Alter investments in agriculture

      • Role of livestock?

    • The consequences of this change could be greater than

    • past changes – Is the livestock sector prepared?


Expectations of u s agriculture
Expectations of U. S. Agriculture

  • Production of food – Long-term mission

    • High quality

    • Safe

    • Low cost

  • 2. Production of biofuels – New role

    • Liquid fuels suitable for internal combustion engines

    • Corn grain is predominant feedstock used for ethanol

  • 3. Livestock production

    • Expectations of society not clear

      • Small vs. Large – Location

    • Source of capital

    • Might begin moving off-shore



Ethanol production in iowa dry grind plants
Ethanol Production in IowaDry-Grind Plants

aCould be feedlot (backgrounding, finish), beef cows, dairy cows,

replacement females. Based on feeding 40 lbs wet DGS/d.


Influence of biofuels on livestock production
Influence of Biofuels on Livestock Production

  • Competition for feedstock (starch & cellulose)

    • Impact on feed prices

      • DGS has not helped to solve the problem

        • Dry DGS is a commodity feed and can be moved

        • Plants have dryers so wet DGS priced on dry

        • Low energy value of dry DGS for monogastrics

    • Develop corn designed for ethanol rather than feed

      • High starch, lower protein, add amylase

  • 2. Land values

    • Cost of land

    • Availability of land for grazing

  • 3. Flow of nutrients

    • Phosphorus (To some extent nitrogen)


Influence of biofuels on livestock production1
Influence of Biofuels on Livestock Production

  • 4. Effects of feeding DGS on animal health and performance

    • Availability of amino acids

    • Availability of energy

    • Mycotoxins

    • Antibiotics

    • Sulfur (ruminants)

    • High nitrogen intakes

  • 5. Quality and safety of animal food products

    • Effects of unsaturated oil

  • 6. Competition for energy and water

    • Natural gas – also used by agriculture

    • 3 to 6 gal water per gal ethanol – livestock

    • also use high volumes of water


Use of Biomass for Ethanol ProductionImplications for Livestock Industries

  • 1. No assurance more corn will be available for livestock

    • Greater cost of producing ethanol from cellulose/hemicellulose

      • Corn plants have been built – Corn grain will

        continue to be used to produce ethanol

    • Federal policy would have to direct change in use

      • of corn grain

      • Market forces will not cause a change

  • 2. Supply of biomass

    • Corn stover is current primary supply of biomass in Iowa

      • Compete for a feed supply fed to cattle

    • Develop perennial crop – Switch grass

      • Increase competition for use of land available

      • for grazing or production of grain

  • 3. No co-product is produced that has feed value for animals

    • Maybe a protein fraction (Need energy to feed animals)


Possible consequences of biofuels
Possible Consequences of Biofuels

  • 1. Livestock industries remain a competitor for feedstocks

    • DGS remain a commodity

    • Exacerbate the problems of agriculture

    • October 12, 2007 – A broad coalition of organizations representing

    • animal agriculture urge congressional leaders to oppose

    • increasing RFS for grain-based ethanol

  • 2. Livestock industries coordinate with production of biofuels

  • and address some of the issues being raised

    • Food and fuel

    • Net energy balance of producing biofuels

    • Sustainability of biofuels production

      • Economic

      • Ecologic

    • Rural economic development


Opportunities
Opportunities

  • Pricing of DGS for livestock

    • Establishing a price for livestock not simple

    • Price relative to corn at a price beneficial to livestock

  • and ethanol producers

  • 2. Develop coordinated food and energy systems

    • Produce food(s) and energy

  • 3. Improve net energy balance of the coordinated system

  • 4. Recycle nutrients

    • Reduce energy inputs for agriculture production

    • Reduce environmental impact of agriculture

  • 5. Grow biofuels and livestock industries in Iowa


Integrated Livestock and Ethanol ProductionIowa

  • Feed wet DGS

    • Save energy for drying DGS

    • Recycle water as wet DGS

  • Benefits of Manure as Fertilizer

    • Stop importing P & K

    • Reduce N imported

  • Benefits of anaerobic digester

    • Reduce use of natural gas

    • Conserve manure nutrients

  • Limitations

    • Majority of feedlots not

    • designed for this system

    • Requires extensive

    • coordination

    • Anaerobic digesters not well

    • developed

Corn Ethanol Fuel

DGS

Feedlot Food

CH4 Identified markets

Fertilizer Branded products

Manure

Anaerobic

Digester

Future: Use CO2 from ethanol & digester

Grow algae

Synthetic genomics – synthetic cells


Beef Herd to Support Feedlots1000 Head Feedlot Turned 2 x per Year

aCorrected for water intake from pasture.


Feeding Wet DGS Recycles WaterWet DGS (32% DM)

  • Growing cattle fed 70% DGS, Feedlot cattle fed 50%

    Cows fed 50%, Replacement heifers fed 60%

  • 1000 head feedlot (turned 2x per year)

    10.78 mil lbs DGS DM fed per year

    3.8% of output of 50 mgy ethanol plant

  • Wet DGS would replace 2.75 mil gal water/yr

    15.9% of water requirement of cattle

  • Water use

  • 50 mgy ethanol plant - 200 to 250 mgy water

  • 26.5 beef units to use DGS from 50 mgy plant - 460 mgy

    • Feed wet DGS: Recycle 29 to 36% of water

    • used by ethanol plant


Integrating cattle and ethanol improves net energy biofuel energy petroleum energy
Integrating Cattle and Ethanol Improves Net Energy Biofuel energy/Petroleum energy

Based on EBAMM model

University of California-Berkeley

Benefits

  • Reduce use of commercial nitrogen fertilizer

  • Greater value of DGS

  • Reduce use of natural gas

    • Feed wet DGS

  • Dependent on feeding high levels of wet DGS to cattle

    • How much can be fed?

+ Cattle + Cattle

+ Digester


Effects of Feeding Wet Distillers Grains on Carcass Measurements – Steers and HeifersFour Experiments

Medium = 20 or 28%, high = 40% wet DGS

AOV: ADG P < 0.04, Dress % (P < 0.05)

Bonferroni t-test: No significance


Steers Fed Modified Wet Distillers Grains Measurements – Steers and Heifers(52% DM)

Cattle: 690 lb steers fed 186 days, implanted 2 x. Carcass value based

on premiums and discounts. DGS 52% DM.


Net Income Measurements – Steers and Heifers

Steers Fed Modified Wet DGS

Net income from feeding 690 lb steers

a corn-based diet or modified DGS.

Net income based on carcass value and

related to price of corn and DGS (as

% of corn price).


Steers and Heifers Fed Modified Wet DGS Measurements – Steers and Heifers(52% DM)

aFed 120 days bFed 169 days.

Control diet 86% corn and supplement, 10% corn silage, 4% tub-ground grass hay.

One combination implant in the cattle on day 1. DGS 52% DM.


Steers and Heifers Fed Modified Wet DGS Measurements – Steers and Heifers

Carcass value based on premiums and discounts.


Net Income Measurements – Steers and Heifers

Heifers Fed Modified Wet DGS

Net income from feeding 725 lb heifers

a corn-based diet or modified DGS.

Net income based on carcass value and

related to price of corn and DGS (as

% of corn price).


Net Income Measurements – Steers and Heifers

Steers Fed Modified Wet DGS

Net income from feeding 830 lb steers

fed a corn-based diet or modified DGS.

Net income based on carcass value and

related to price of corn and DGS (as

% of corn price).


Steers and Heifers Fed Wet DGS (32% DM) Measurements – Steers and Heifers2007 Experiment (Preliminary data at 84 days)

Control diet 86% corn and supplement, 10% corn silage, 4% tub ground grass hay.

One combination implant in the cattle on day 1.


Conclusions
Conclusions Measurements – Steers and Heifers

  • High levels of wet DGS can be fed to cattle

    • Up to 60% of dry matter intake

    • Satisfactory performance of the cattle can be maintained

  • Effects on carcass quality can be managed

    • Feeding high levels of DGS seems to decrease marbling to some extent

  • Wet DGS can be priced relative to corn grain

    • Price should be less than corn grain on a dry basis

      • Provide economic incentive to cattle producers

      • Need to allow economic return to ethanol plant for co-product


Implications
Implications Measurements – Steers and Heifers

  • Integrating livestock with production of biofuels

    addresses many of the concerns being expressed

    • Energy obtained from petroleum energy invested

    • Food: production/price

    • Sustainability: environmental/economic

    • Rural development

    • Water conservation


ad