External Policies. Hiroaki Goto Takayuki Kato. External policies. Trade policies Foreign and Defence policies Development policies The External Dimension of Internal policy The Consistency and Representational problems. Trade policy. Economic and Trading strengths of the EU
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Liberal trading policy
=promoting the general liberalization of trade
1, the lowering of international customs duties
2, the removal of non-tariff barriers (非関税障壁） to trade.
Japanese argument: wants EU to abolish 10% customs against cars from Japan or 14% customs against Televisions. In contrast, customs against Korean cars are being decreased gradually due to the FTA.( namely complaint against CET).
EU argument:There are too many non-tariff barriers in Japan, which require European companies complicated procedures (namely Japan should deregulate its standard because the norms are much stricter than International ones.
From the early 1990s in particular the commission campaigned for the rapidly expanding trade areas of services and intellectual property to be located within the framework of Article 133.
→But, due to the sensitivity of many matters in these areas , the member states preferred to interpret Article 133 narrowly and edged towards a broader approach only slowly.
so as to provide a measure of continuing national protection, unanimity (rather than the normal Article 207 provision of QMV was retained in the Council for the taking of decisions in especially sensitive areas.
→typically, association agreements include highly preferential access to EU markets, the prospect of a free trade are eventually being formed between signatories, economic and technical cooperation of various sorts, financial aid from the EU, political dialogue (in some cases) the prospect of the associated countries eventually becoming the member of EU
Countries seeking EU membership:
Turkey ,Western Balkans such as Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia.
These western Balkan states are part of the EU’s Stability programme which includes association agreements for supporting internal reforms and development.
The agreements explicitly hold out the prospect of future EU membership and very much part of a pre-accession strategy that is designed to assist economic liberalization, market adjustment and political democratization.
These countries are part of the EU’s Mediterranean policy.
The prospect of EU membership is not part of these association agreements
→France, Italy, Spain and Greece tending to favour a measure of protectionism
→Germany and the UK tending more towards trade liberalization
(to be continued)
1, Generalized Preferences: 176 developing and vulnerable countries are given preferential trading access to the EU market in the form of the reduction and removal of tariffs.
2, Food aid: Foodstuffs are sent to countries with serious food shortage.
3, Emergency aid: Aid of an appropriate sort is made available to countries stricken by natural disasters and other crises.
4, Aid to non-governmental organizations: The EU makes available aid to projects sponsored by non-governmental organizations in a number of developing world countries.
The Cotonou Agreement coutries with many of Lome’s core features , including: duty-free access to the market for virtually all ACP export; schemes to stabilize export earnings ; and the European Development Fund(EDF),which provides financial assistance for development projects in ACP countries.
So, do you prize the activity of the EU?
1, many ACP states have not improved their economic independence and are not becoming properly integrated into the world economy.
2, WTO pressures arising from the fact that the non-reciprocal and preferential nature of the trade aspects of Lome/Cotonou are incompatible with WTO rules.
1, EDF is financed by the EU budget (around 4% of budget). Half of this aid is used to provide financial assistance to non-ACP countries and about half is used for food aid purposes.
2, EDF is funded by special contributions from the member states.
What do you think about the financial source and the capacity of EU for Development Policy?
1, Strains have sometimes arisen between member states and between member states and EU institutions because there are different priorities and interests between the states.
→French: neo-colonial. Italy: more commercial approach. UK: stresses good governance Nordic states: focus principally on the alleviation of poverty.
1, When the Council simply intending to issue a declaration or a resolution on a matter, it is not obliged to consult EP and can move at its own pace
2, If a trade-only agreement is expected, Article 207 applies=QMV can be used in the Council and the EP has the power of consent.
(There are much more cases)
According to the Treaty on EU (TEU), “The Member States”shall
・support the Union‘s external and security policy actively
・work together to enhance and develop their mutual solidarity
・The EU has 27 member states, including major powers (the U.K., France, Germany and Italy)
・The U.K. and France have nuclear weapons
・Two of the five permanent members of the UNSC (UK and France)
1. EU ≠ a state
2. Unwillingness to lose power
3. Different views on Foreign issues
・the EU was not so much influencial on political and security matters.
→Unlike other policy areas, the member states were reluctant to adopt the normal decision-making process on foreign policy.
・However, this situation has been changing since the early 1990s.
1. The end of the Cold War
International relations became highly fluid (not simply divided into two powers, East or West).
→Increase of the significance of the EU to manage issues on European countries
2. German Unification
Increased the significance of Germany and other East European countries
→Not only economic but also foreign policy became needed
3. the Gulf Crisis
Iraq invaded Kuwait in 1990 and a Coalition force led by the US was organized.
But the EU member states reacted separately
→Security and defence policies were kept away from foreign policy
4. The break-up of Yugoslavia
The former Yugoslavia was divided and severe civil war happened.
However, there was no clear, consistent or coordinated actions by the EU.
There are some treaties which made progresses in foreign security policies.
e.g. The Amsterdam treaty made QMV available for some policy decision-making.
Problem→Foreign policy is sometimes viewed and used as an additional mechanism for seeking more national interests.
Inter-state cooperation is difficult in security and defence area.
1. Security and defence are closely related to national sovereignty.
2.The difference of security and defence capabilities of the member states
3. The varying willingness to use armed force
4. Different attitudes toward commitment between member states
5. The relationships with NATO and the U.S. vary from country to country
Therefore, the United States (and NATO) took the policy lead in dealing with conflicts in the break-up Yugoslavia and Balkans.
In December 1998, at a Franco-British summit the two countries called for a clearer and stronger security capability within the NATO framework.
→Since this summit, EU security and defence policies advanced rapidly.
1.It is limited to “the Petersberg tasks”, which are focused on crisis management, peace-keeping and humanitarian tasks.
2.It is located within NATO and committed to transatlantic alliance.
3.It is a clear intergovernmental based policy.
1. Defence Policy → ×
2.Soft security policy →focuses on the promotion of peace and security, uses no military power e.g. political cooperation
3.Hard security policy → uses military capability for conflict resolution e.g. the Petersberg tasks
Goals…Promoting peace, democracy, liberty, and human rights
A particular focus…Building cooperative and stable relations with neighboring states
・Launched in March 2003
・Aim→Develop the EU’s bilateral relations with former Soviet states and north African states
BUT…The ENP focus is too broad to be effecticve.
・Reluctance to over-develop security and defence policies
・Member states divided
→e.g. 2003 US invasion of Iraq
・The EU is heavily dependent on US/NATO assistance to deal with conflicts.
・Without high expenditure on security and defence, the major military resources will be more reliant on them.
・However, member states cut off their military budget.
・Appointment of the European Union special representative in Kosovo
・The launching of the EU military operation in Somalia to protect ships from pirates
・A further contribution to the conflict settlement in Georgia/South Ossetia
・The European Council
→Responsible for the overall direction of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP)
→Advocates current concerns about foreign policy
・The Council of Ministers (The Foreign Affairs Council)
→The main decision-making body of the CFSP
→Unanimity mostly required, but QMV available for operational matters
・The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy
→Complicated position (belonging to both the Commission and the Council)
→Serve as a proposer, promoter, facilitater and implementer, but not an independent decision-maker
→The intergovernmental nature
→Much weaker in foreign policy area than other policies
・The European Parliament
→Limited to advisory, monitoring foreign policy
→Serving as a consultant
・Embassies, delegations and missions
→The EU has few external delegations (only 5 delegates to international organization).
→The CFSP wants them to play more significant roles on the world stage.
・Because the EU is not a state, it is difficult to play an important role on security and defence policy.
・Also, policy processes of foreign policy is not well-organized.
・But EU has been making progress.
1.The EU’s inability to give a decisive reaction to Kosovo’s declaration of independence from Serbia in mid-2008
2.The lack of a concerted EU position on how to react to Israel’s invasion of Gaza in December 2008
1.The great spread of the EU external relation’s interests and activities
2.The conflicting orientations and preferences of member states on many policy issues
The convening at different levels and inter-institution meetings are essential.
The EU’s representation can vary according to circumstances
Political issues→No one wants to be the representative of the European Union
Financial issues→Everybodywants to
Transport, energy, and environmental policy
・Fully coordination among member states is required.
・In environmental policy areas, the EU is influential.
→The EU is well prepared for external negotiationsby EU coordination meetings when necessary.