College English Integrated Course II Unit I: Ways of Learning. I. Objectives of Teaching in This Unit. 1. Find out the differences between Chinese and Western attitudes toward learning. 2. Grasp the main idea and the structure of the text;
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1. Find out the differences between Chinese and Western attitudes toward learning.
2. Grasp the main idea and the structure of
3. Appreciate the differences between
comparison and contrast, as well as ways
to compare and contrast;
4. Master the key language points and grammatical structures in the text.
Much of the current debate over education surrounds the extent to which learning should be teacher-based or student-based. Which of the two should decide what should be learned, how it should be learned, and when it should be learned? Comparing Western and Asian methods of learning it is generally true that western methods are more student-centered, expecting students to discover things for themselves rather than relying on their teachers to tell them.
An extreme version of the student-centered approach can be seen at Summerhill, a school in England established by the educationist A.S. Neil. There children have complete freedom to decide what they are going to learn and which lessons they will attend. If they wish they need not attend any at all.
Mainstream education in England is far more strict, demanding that children shouldattend lessons and follow a national curriculum. The curriculum and the importance of achieving good exam results tend to reinforce a more teacher-centered approach, as both teachers and students find the pressure of time leaves less opportunity for an exploratory approach to learning.
III. Pre-Reading Questions:
1. Do you agree with the following statements?
1) Play is the best way to learn.
2) Children develop life skills best through formal program.
3) Children are naturally curious, inspired, motivated learners, but sometimes the enjoyment of learning can get lost in the pressure to “succeed” in formal education.
2. If you find a 2-year-old boy is trying to put a
key into the slot, will you help him immediately?
3. Do you remember how your parents taught you
in your childhood? Did they like to teach you by
holding your hand?
4. Which way did you prefer when you were in
trouble with one of the your toys in your
childhood, turning to your parents for help or
exploring by yourself ?
IV. Scan Text A and decide whether the following statements are True or False.
Benjamin was not bothered at all.
2. In the Chinese hotel servant’s opinion,
the parents should guide Benjamin to
insert the key. ( )
4. For the Westerners, learning should take place by continual careful shaping and molding. ( )
The Chinese think that learning should take place by continual careful shaping and molding.
5. Chinese teachers hold the opinion that
skills should be acquired as early as
possible, while American educators think
that creativity should be acquired early. ( )
The anecdote that the Chinese hotel servant helped Benjamin to place the key is to introduce the topic of the text.
Part 1 ( ):
Part 2 ( ):
The author’s thoughts
about different approaches to learning in
China and the West.
Part 3 ( ):
In the form of a question, the author gives a suggestion of a more rational approach to fostering creativity and basic skills.
1. How does the author introduce the topic
of the text?
There are several ways to introduce a theme. In this text, the author introduces the topic by the key-slot anecdote.
2. How different is the attitude of the couple
from that of the hotel servant toward
Benjamin’s efforts in inserting the key
into the slot?
The couple: let Benjamin explore and
Hotel servant: help his hand and taught
him how to insert the key
1. Read the first sentence of both Para. 6 and
Para. 7, and decide what method of
comparison and contrast is used.
Subject-by-subject or One-side-at-a-time method.
2. Sum up the contrast between Chinese
and Western ways to learn to fulfill a task.
Chinese: show a child how to do, or teach
by holding his hand.
Western: teach a child to rely on himself
for solutions to problems
3. Read from Para.11 to Para. 3 to see which
method of comparison and contrast is used.
3. Read from Para.11 to Para. 3 to see which
method of comparison and contrast is used.
B. Putting more emphasis on fostering
creativity in young children, thinking that
skills can be picked up later.
5. There are many ways to end an essay.
How does the author end the text?
Three Ways of Comparing Things
1) Comparison: You are asked to explain how two or more things are alike.
2) Contrast: You are asked to explain how two or more things are different.
3) Comparison and Contrast: You are asked to explain how two or more things are alike and different. (More complicated and difficult)
Two Basic Types of Comparison/Contrast
First compare/contrast all the points on the one side, then compare/contrast those on the other side.
First discuss the point on both sides, then the second point, then the third…
Useful Expressions for Comparison and Contrast:
Secondly, it is better for them to make friends and to talk about their business in a restaurant than at home.
1. reflect on a visit to China and gives his thoughts on different approaches to learning…
reflect on:consider carefully; give an idea of
---Japan needs at least to reflect on their past
incursion on china. Any Japanese people
with a good conscience should feel sorry
for what their ascendants had done in China.
---Journaling provides you with a way to
reflect on what is happening to you.
give one’s thoughts on: express one’s opinion of
---Joe has never hesitated to give us his
thoughts on the computer games we make
---Sir Terry Leahy will give you his thoughts
on Leadership in the afternoon.
approach (to doing sth): (1) a manner or
method of doing sth.
(2) the act of coming
near or nearer;
(3) begin to consider
or deal with
---The concert for the Taiwan pop singer Zhang
Hui-mei was held as scheduled in Beijing on
July 31, which showed the Chinese
government’s rational approach to cross-strait
---The approach of spring brings warmer weather
and more rain.
---The old professor is very strict with his students, but he is very friendly and easy to approach.
---He approached the difficulty with great thought.
2.(Line 3)…while studying arts education in…
有些表示时间、地点、条件、方式或让步的从句中，如果谓语含有动词 be, 主语又和句子的主语一致，或者主语是it，常可把从句中的主语和谓语的一部分（特别是动词be）省略掉：
---Look out for cars when (you are) crossing the street.
---When/If taken according to the instructions, the drug has no side effects.
---Although three years old already, he was not able to walk without support.
--He hurriedly left the room as though(if) angry.
--Once having made a promise, you should keep it.
--I’ll have the letter copied if (it is) necessary.
--They will put the plan into practice as quickly as possible.
--If asked to give an answer, he would become angry.
3.(Line 4) But one of the most telling lessons… in difference … came not in the classroom but in the lobby…
But one of the most effective and impressive lessons in difference…took place not in the classroom but in the lobby…
Or: I learned one of the most impressive lessons in difference …not in the classroom but in the lobby…
4. (Line 7) The key to our room was attached to a large plastic block…
attach: fasten,connect or join (one thing to
Attach sth. to sth else.
--Usually you should attach a recent photograph to your application form when you apply for a position.
--Attached to this letter you will find a copy of the document you asked for.
attach importance/significance etc to sth:
attach blame to sb. for sth.
--The company always attach great importance to the quality of products and services, strictly carrying out international quality standards.
--More importance in the form of fund should be attached to the development of mandatory education.
--We cannot attach blame to him for all this; we made a wrong decision at the wrong time.
5. (Lines 8-9) …a guest was encouraged to turn in the key, …
turn in: hand in; give back; return; go to bed
--It is a poor piece of work you have turned in.
--You have to turn in the uniform when you leave the army.
--It is a healthy habit to turn in early and get up early.
6.(Line 10) …the key had to be positioned carefully to fit into it. 你得留神把钥匙放准位置才能塞进去
fit in/into: take the right space or time in sth.
(cause to) be suitable for sth.
--I can’t fit the toy into the box; it is crammed.
--The secretary managed to fit the appointment into the president’s schedule.
--Any new buildings must be fitted into the existing appearance of the city.
7. (Line13) Because of his tender age and incomplete understanding of the need to position the key just so, he would usually fail.
Paraphrase: Because he was so young and didn’t quite know that he should position the key carefully to fit into the narrow key slot, he would usually fail.
8. Benjamin was not bothered in the least.
not… in the least: not at all;by no means;
far from; not the least bit;
anything but; not the least
--She is not ugly in the least.(她一點也不難看)
--She is not ugly at all.
--She is by no means ugly.
--She is anything but ugly.
--She is far from ugly.
--I tried to convince them, but they were not the
least interested/ not interested in the least.
9.(Lines15-17) He probably got as much pleasure out of the sounds the key made as he did those few times when the key actually found its way into the slot.
--In those days, I drank asmuch beer as I could,
and put on a lot of weight. I had a big belly
--He has won as many Olympic gold medals as
Not so much A as B与其说;倒不如说
--Mariah Carey is not so much an actress as a
10. (Line 20) phenomenon (pl.phenomena)
phenomenon: sth that happens or exists and
that can be seen or experienced
--Language is a social and cultural phenomenon.
11.(Line 20-22) Any Chinese staff member would…, noting his lack of initial success, attempt to assist.
注：本句中分词短语noting his lack of initial success用做时间状语：
--Seeing those pictures, he couldn’t help thinking of those memorable days they spent together.
--Returning home, Professor Hutchins began writing about his adventures.
initial: first; of or at the beginning
--If a car suddenly pulls out in front of you, your initial reaction may include fear and anger.
--Their initial burst of enthusiasm died down when they realized how much work the job involved.
assist sb. with/in doing sth;
assist sb. to do sth.
--You will be employed to assist in the development of new equipment.
--The professor was assisting his students to prepare their project.
12. (Line 25) …as if awaiting a thank you—and on occasion would frown slightly, as if considering us to neglect our parental duties.
await: wait for ( “await” is more formally
used in writing)
--He had been anxiously awaiting her reply ever since he wrote two weeks before.
--He has long awaited this moment of winning the championship of world game.
on occasion: now and then 有时，间或
--On occasion, a small two-bedroom cottage can
be found in the low $200,000s, while oceanfront
homes list at over $1,000,000.
--Raylene is an avid racing fan who actually has
driven stock cars on occasion.
on one occasion: once 有一次，曾经
on the occasion of: at the time sth happens
--On one occasion I drove to the hospital in the
middle of the night.
--On the occasion of the 7th anniversary of the
company’s establishment, the President
expressed his heartfelt thanks to all those who
have offered the company support and help.
neglect: give too little attention or care to sth.
--neglect one’s meals and sleep 废寝忘食
--Don’t neglect to lock the door when you leave.
Cf. Neglect; ignore; omit
--Those who neglect their duties should be punished.
--Why do you always neglect the traffic regulations?
--When I saw Tom, I stopped to greet him, but he ignored me and walked on.
--A teacher should not ignore any question that his students may ask him.
--He should not omit to visit the museum.
--The third part of the book may be omitted.
13. (Line 28)
relevant: directly connected with the subject
be relevant to sth.
--What experience do you have that is relevant to this position?
--Only a few people feel the debate about the cloning of human beings is relevant to their daily lives.
pattern: investigate sth.,
investigate + wh clause
--Police are still investigating how the accident happened.
--We assure you that your complaint will be fully and properly investigated.
15. (Line 30) and to throw light on Chinese attitudes toward creativity.
Paraphrase:and to help to explain how the Chinese think look at creativity of the students.
throw light on sth: help to explain or understand.
--The report in the newspaper throws light on the death of the pop star.
--These facts throw new light on the matter.
16. (Line 34) With a few exceptions …
exception: ab/sth. that a comment or statement
does not include
--Normally, parents aren’t allowed to sit in on
class, but in your case we can make an exception.
--Without exception all our youngsters wanted to leave school and start work.
--There is an exception to this grammatical rule.
--We all laughed, with the exception of Maggie.
--with many/few exceptions 有很多/少例外
--without exception 毫无例外；一律
--with the exception of 除…之外
--make an exception of 把…作为例外
--make no exceptions 不容许有例外；
17. (Line 36) …which is the ultimate purpose of approaching the slot, … to realize the desired action on his own.
ultimate: last; considered as an origin or base
--After many defeats, the war ended for us in ultimate victory.
--The ultimate responsibility lies with the president.
--The sun is the ultimate store of power.
on one’s own: without anyone’s help;
--Children should be given opportunities to solve problems on their own.
--The child was left on her own for hours as her mom had to deal with the emergency.
--I’d rather not go to the dance on my own. I do wish you’d come with me.
18. (Line 39) He may well get frustrated…
may well: fairly likely
--Your job may well involve traveling.
= It is fairly likely that your job involves
19. (Lines 42-45) ---both of which accomplishments can (and should) in due course be modeled for him as well.
in due course: at the proper time; eventually
---After they were engaged, the wedding
followed in due course/time (经过一定时间；到适当时候).
---Your book will be published in due course.
---Be patient. You will get your promotion in due course.
20. (Line 51-54) So long as the child is shown exactly how to do something—whether it be placing a key in a key slot,…--he is likely to figure out himself how to accomplish such a task.
“whether it be placing a key in a key slot”
In formal English, the subjunctive mood is used occasionally in whether-clause.
--The ceremony will, whether it be fine or rain, be held as scheduled.
so long as: as long as; if; on condition that
--So long as Chen Shui-bian sticks to his separatist stance of “one country on each side,” his so-called peace proposals will be nothing but lies to deceive the Taiwanese people and the international community.
--The material on this website may be freely reproduced and distributed, so long as it is used strictly for educational or research purposes.
he is less likely to figure out himself:
if is less possible for him to work out or understand by thinking
figure out: work out; understand by thinking;
--I can’t figure her out—she is a mystery to me.
--We must figure out the causes of the problem we try to find a solution to it.
--The accountant is trying to figure out the tax.
21. (Lines 54-55) …view life …as a series of situations …
view(…as): consider; look at; regard;
--Many of the leading international companies
view China as a lucrative market with a
--As the man and his wife grow older they view
their future with anxiety, because they had
saved very little money.
make up for: repay with sth. good,
--I didn’t travel much when I was younger, but I’m certainly making up for lost time now.
--Her husband bought her a present to make for for quarrelling with her the day before.
22. (Line 59) In retrospect, it became clear to me that…
in retrospect: in reflection
--In retrospect, I wish I had chosen biology as my major.
--The young man knew in retrospect that he should have married his first love Emily.
23. (Line 64-65) Instead, they guided him with extreme facility and gentleness in precisely the desired direction.
extreme: (adj.) very great
(n.) the furthest possible point
--The woman screamed with extreme fear at the sight of the snake.
--I know I always say that you eat too much, but there is no need to go to the other extreme.
--The film is not very good, but some critics have gone to the extremes, saying that it is the worst of the decade.
24.(Line 69) ---so much so that he would happily come back for more.
so much so that: to such an extent that
--Some parents spoil their children, so much so that they never ask them to do any housework.
--They love their pet dog, so much so that they regard it as member of the family.
--Americans treat their children as separate individuals, so much so that someone who remains dependent on their parents longer than the norm may be thought to be “immature.”
25. (Lines70-71) The idea that learning should …
applies equally to the arts.
apply: 1) be relevant (to sb./sth.);
have an effect on
apply to sb./sth.
2) write a letter or fill in a form to ask
formally for sth.
apply for sth; apply to do sth.
--The new pension arrangements only apply to people born after 1970.
--At the interview the manager asked me how many jobs I had applied for before I was offered that one.
26. (Line77)…we learned from their parents that they worked on perfecting their craft…
work on/at: try very hard to improve or
--Sophia needs to work at/on her typing speed.
--John came back ahead of time to continue working on his thesis.
27. (Lines 79-83) In term of attitudes to creativity there seems to be a reversal of priorities: young Westerners making their boldest departures first and….
1) sth. that must be done before anything else;
2) sth. that holds a high place among
--Earning enough money to support himself and his family is his priority in his life.
--This business school will give priority to English and computer studies.
--Priority should be given to the needs of the students.
making their boldest departures:doing sth.
different from the established rule of tradition.
27. (Lines 82-83)
be inseparable from: cannot be taken away from
--Beijing and Tianjin are inseparable from Hebei
and so is Hebei from them. In the process of
economic development they depends on each
--Science and technology development in China is
inseparable from that in the rest of the world
and the progress of world science and
technology also needs China's contribution.
evolve: develop gradually
--The story evolves into a violent tragedy.
--Popular music evolved from folk songs.
--The government’s favorable policies made it possible for them to evolve from a traditional department store into a new kind of Concept Store.
28. (Lines 85-87) The contrast between our two cultures can also be seen in terms of the fears we both harbor.
harbor: 1) (v.) keep secretly in mind;
cherish a negative feeling
2) (n.) a place of shelter for ships
--He harbored thoughts of revenge against his stepfather in his childhood.
--Ships stayed in the harbor during the storm.
28. (Lines 86-91) Chinese teachers…,on the other hand, …
on the one/other hand:as one point in the argument/as an opposite point in the argument
--This workshop will, on the one hand, enable the international writers to have a better understanding of Hong Kong and the mainland China, but on the other hand, it will also make it possible for our local cultural community to learn more about the world literature.
--One the one hand, we have good reason to feel pleased with our progress. On the other hand, we mustn’t get complacent.
promote: 1) help to grow or develop
2) advance sb. In position or rank
3) bring goods to public notice in
order to increase sales
--to promote understanding and friendship between the two countries.
--He was promoted to deputy president last week.
--They put some ads in the paper to promote their new product.
29. (Lines 95-96) …its reliance on previous achievements is all too apparent (the “standing on the shoulders of giants” phenomenon).
all too: very; to a degree more than enough
--We're all too eager to see the new design of the
--People in Florida are all too familiar with
the “standing on the shoulders of giants” phenomenon:
Paraphrase: When we stand on the shoulders of giants, we are able to see farther and reach what we desire. Likewise, by relying on previous achievements we make innovations and breakthroughs possible.
30. (Line 98) Assuming (that) (conjunction): This phrase is used when you talk about an event or situation that might happen, and what you will do if it happens:
assuming that: suppose that
--Assuming that we all work at the same rate, we should be finished by January.
--Assuming that you get a place at a university, how are you going to finance your studies?
31. (Lines 100-102) Can we gather, …, a superior way to approach education, perhaps striking a better balance between the poles of creativity and basic skills?
Superior : (no comparative) better,
more powerful, more effective than
a similar person or thing, especially
one that you are competing against
Pattern: be superior to
be inferior to
--Your computer is far superior to mine.
--This product is superior to any other product
on the market.
--The conditions of Beijing University and
Tsing-Hua University are not inferior to those
of foreign ones, in some respects they are even
stronger than those of the best schools of
Differences in approaches to learning between the Chinese and Americans:
1) Ways to learn to accomplish a task
Chinese: show a child how to do sth. Or
teach by holding his hand
Americans: teach children that they should rely on themselves for solutions
2) Attitudes to creativity and skills
Chinese: give greater priority to developing skills at an early age, believing creativity can be promoted over time.
Americans: put more emphasis on fostering creativity in young childhood, thinking that skills can be picked up later.
被系在…上 be attached to sth.
探索行为 exploratory behavior
偶尔 on occasion
父母的责任 parental duties
提示，阐明 throw light on sth
最终目的 an ultimate purpose
要做的动作 a desired action
所希望的结果 a desirable result
关键；至关重要的时刻 a critical point
养儿育女的价值观 the value of child rearing
弥补某种错误行为 make up for a misdeed
回想起来 in retrospect
极其熟练而温和地 with extreme facility and gentleness
适用于 apply to sth/sb
发展到，进化到 evolve (from) to
发展提高创造力 promote creativity
值得追求的目标 worthwhile goals
Rich People You Know
Introduce some rich people and discuss what values these rich people hold dear by collecting stories, news reports, pictures, books, or video clips of rich people.
sth. that is more important than anything else; right to have or do sth. before others
e.g. The highest priority of governments has been given to the problem of heavy traffic.
I have priority over you in my claim.
The badly wounded have priority for medical attention over those only slightly hurt.
top / low priority
Rebuilding this area is a top priority.