Phylum chordata
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Phylum Chordata. Phylum Chordata. Includes 5 Classes Fish Amphibians Reptiles Birds Mammals. Fish. Habitat : nearly every aquatic environment Respiration : use gills to breathe Circulation : 2 chambered heart Reproduction : sexual (mostly external)

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Phylum chordata1
Phylum Chordata

Includes 5 Classes

  • Fish

  • Amphibians

  • Reptiles

  • Birds

  • Mammals


  • Habitat: nearly every aquatic environment

  • Respiration: use gills to breathe

  • Circulation: 2 chambered heart

  • Reproduction: sexual (mostly external)

  • Nervous System: lateral line system that can detect movement


  • 3 Major Types of Fish

    • Jawless Fish

    • Cartilaginous Fish (chondricthes)

    • Bony Fish (osteicthes)


  • Examples: frogs, salamanders, toads

  • Habitat: live on land and water

  • Respiration: lungs in adults, gills in tadpoles, but mostly through the moist skin

  • Reproduction: External reproduction

    (water needed to transport sperm and

    eggs must be kept moist)


Circulation: 3 chambered heart (mixing)

One chamber gets oxygen-rich blood from the lungs and skin

One gets oxygen-poor blood form the rest of the body

Both of those chambers collect in a third chamber that pumps a mix of oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood to the lungs, skin and body



Temperature Regulation: Ectotherms, variable body temperature – gets heat from outside source

Metamorphosis – eggs, tadpoles, adult

Tadpoles – fins, gills, 2-chambered heart

Adult – legs, lungs, 3-chambered heart



Examples: snakes, crocodiles, turtle, lizards

Habitat: Land mostly

Respiration: No exchange thru skin bc it is scaly MUST use lungs

Circulation: most have 3 chambered heart

Obtain food: claws, legs directly under body makes running easier

Temp Regulation: ectotherms



Reproduction: Internal fertilization and can lay eggs on land due to the evolution of the amniotic egg


Amniotic egg

Amnion: fluid that cushions embryo

Shell: leathery shell

Yolk: food source for embryo

Allantois: wastes are excreted into this

Chorion: allows gas exchange

Egg tooth: horny tooth that helps hatch the egg

Amniotic Egg


  • Examples: pelican, penguin, blue jay

  • Respiration: lungs and air sacs for extra oxygen for flight

  • Temp Regulation: Endotherm (internally regulates body temp so it is constant)

  • Reproduction: internal fertilization and lay amniotic egg with a hard shell, must incubate eggs

  • Characteristics to Fly: hollow bones for flight, feathers are lightweight, wings, one urogenital orphus


  • Circulation: 4 chambered heart (one side pumps oxygen-poor blood to lungs the other side pumps oxygen-rich blood to the rest of the body)


Must haves to be a mammal:

  • Hair

  • Mammary glands that secrete milk to nurse young

  • Diaphragm to expand and contract chest cavity to get more oxygen

  • Specialized teeth (ex. Molars, canines, incisors)

  • Can learn!


  • Temp Regulation: Endotherms, maintain fairly constant body temperature

  • Circulation: 4 chambered heart the oxygenated blood is kept separate from the deoxygenated blood

  • Respiration: Diaphragm – sheet of muscle located beneath the lungs that separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity


  • Why is HAIR important?

    • Insulation

    • Waterproofing

    • Conserves body heat

    • Mammals cool off by panting and sweating


Mammals are classified into 3 groups based on their method of reproduction

  • Placental Mammals

  • Marsupials

  • Monotremes

Placental mammals
Placental Mammals

  • Carries baby in the mother’s uterus until development is almost complete

  • Placenta provides food for the baby, allows gas exchange, and removes waste

  • 95% of mammals are placental


  • After a baby has grown to a certain size, the mom carries the baby inside a pouch made of skin and hair on the outside of the mom’s body

  • Most are found in Australia


  • Reproduces by laying eggs

  • Found only in Australia, Tasmania, and New Guinea

  • 3 species of monotremes alive today (platypus, spiny anteater and long-beaked echidna