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Weather. Click HERE for Discovery Channel Guide to Extreme Weather (50 min). Weather -It’s what’s happening outside NOW!. Weather. All weather is a result of humidity, condensation and pressure. Water Cycle. Humidity—Water Vapor in the Air.

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Weather

Weather


Click here for discovery channel guide to extreme weather 50 min

Click HERE forDiscovery ChannelGuide to Extreme Weather (50 min)


Weather it s what s happening outside now

Weather-It’s what’s happening outside NOW!


Weather

Weather

All weather is a result of humidity, condensation and pressure.


Water cycle

Water Cycle


Humidity water vapor in the air

Humidity—Water Vapor in the Air

  • Specific humidity: actual amount of water vapor in the air at a given time & place (grams of vapor per kilogram of air)

  • Warmer air can hold more water vapor


Humidity

Humidity

Relative humidity: how close the air is to reaching its maximum capacity of water vapor

  • expressed as a percentage

  • 100% means it has reached maximum capacity


Humidity1

Humidity

Measured with a psychrometer

A psychrometer has two thermometers to determine humidity. The dry bulb thermometer measures the room temperature, and wet bulb thermometer is wrapped in a wet cloth. Air is passed through the psychrometer to evaporate moisture on the wet bulb. The readings on the dry bulb thermometer and the wet bulb thermometer are then compared to determine the actual humidity.


Condensation

Condensation

When water changes from a gas to a liquid

  • Dew point: the temperature at which the air becomes saturated with water vapor & condensation occurs

  • If air cools below the dew point, water starts condensing into a liquid, forming dew or cloud droplets


Condensation1

Condensation

  • Fog & clouds form only when there are condensation nuclei (like dust particles) for the water to condense on

  • Air must cool below its dew point


Condensation nuclei

Condensation Nuclei


Nasa view of windblown sands off coast of africa

NASA View of Windblown Sands off Coast of Africa


Nasa views of ash from volcanic eruption

NASA Views of Ash from Volcanic Eruption


Nasa views of smoke and ash from california fires

NASA Views of Smoke and Ash from California Fires


Weather

Smog over LA

from car exhaust


Cloud formation

Cloud Formation

  • When warm, wet air from the surface rises, it begins to cool. Eventually, the temperature drops to its dew point, and the water vapor can condense onto the condensation nuclei

  • Condensation level: the atmospheric level at which condensation occurs


Warm air rises taking the water vapor along with it once it cools it condenses forming a cloud

Warm air rises taking the water vapor along with it. Once it cools, it condenses forming a cloud.


Cloud types

Cloud Types

Classified by altitudeand shape


Explain the process of cloud formation

Explain the process of cloud formation


Ufos or what what happened

UFOs or what?What happened?


Cloud types1

Cloud Types

Stratus: clouds that form inlayers

Cirrus: high,featheryice clouds

Cumulus: fluffyclouds with flat bases

Nimbus: darkrainclouds


Cloud types2

Cloud types


Precipitation

Precipitation

Any form of water that falls from a cloud to Earth’s surface


Types of precipitation

Types of Precipitation

  • Rain

  • Snow

  • Sleet: raindrops that refroze on their way to the surface

  • Freezing Rain: raindrops that only freeze when they hit the surface

  • Hail: when frozen raindrops are bounced up & down in the cloud until they fall in a huge ball of ice


Types of precipitation1

Types of Precipitation

depend on the temperature of the atmosphere, both at the surface & on the way down

snow

sleet

freezing rain


Measuring precipitation

Measuring Precipitation

  • Rain gauge: measures liquid precipitation

  • Measuring stick: measures frozen precipitation


Where is precipitation

Where is Precipitation?


Where is precipitation1

Where is Precipitation?

Rain Shadow effect: near a mountain range, the windward side gets lots of rain and the leeward side gets little/no rain – the rain shadow


Explain the rain shadow effect

Explain the Rain Shadow Effect


Extreme weather 1 minute video

Extreme Weather1 minute video

  • http://science.discovery.com/videos/against-the-elements-mashups-devastating-winds.html


Air mass

Air Mass

  • A large body of air in the lower troposphere that has similar characteristics throughout

  • Temperature & humidity depend on origin and move with the air mass


Types of air masses

Types of Air Masses

Continental: dryPolar: cold

Maritime: wetTropical: warm

  • Continental polar (cP): cold & dry

  • Maritime polar (mP): cold & wet

  • Continental tropical (cT): warm & dry

  • Maritime tropical (mT): warm & wet


Types of air masses1

Types of Air Masses


Types of air masses2

Types of Air Masses


Fronts boundary between two air masses

Fronts—boundary between two air masses


Fronts

Fronts

  • Cold Front: boundary between advancing cold air mass & a warmer air mass it is displacing

    • Rising warm air usually produces precipitation if wet

    • Air becomes colder after front passes


Fronts1

Fronts

  • Warm Front: boundary between advancing hot air mass & a colder air mass it is displacing

    • 1st clouds days in advance, then RAIN

    • Air becomes warmer after front passes


Fronts2

Fronts

  • Occluded Front: when cold front ‘catches up’ to a warm front, producing clouds & precipitation


Fronts3

Fronts

Stationary front: when a front stops moving forward, producing clouds & precipitation – causes floods if stationary too long


Station model

Station Model


Surface weather map

Surface Weather Map


Locating a front

Locating a Front

  • Wind direction changes

  • Temperature changes sharply

  • Dew Point changes sharply


Weather forecasting

Weather Forecasting

  • Satellites

  • Radiosondes

  • Surface observations


Forecasting

Forecasting

  • Computer models take current data & plug it into equations to predict weather

  • Meteorologists take computer models & tweak them to fit their experience with local conditions


Forecasting1

Forecasting

Trend Method: using past movement of a front & precipitation to predict future movement


Bibliography

Bibliography

  • http://www.eas.slu.edu/People/CEGraves/Eas107/mteffect1.jpg

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  • http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Sect14/airmasses_schem.jpg

  • http://fcgov.com/oem/oem-images/cold-front.jpg

  • http://www.metoffice.com/education/curriculum/lesson_plans/weathersystems/partb.html

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  • http://www.estatevaults.com/bol/images/%20%20Boston%20Blizzard.jpg

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