With Liberty and Justice, the Federal Government
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With Liberty and Justice, the Federal Government. Let’s Review. What was the nation’s first Constitution called?. Articles of Confederation. Name the meeting in which delegates from 12 states met to revise the Articles of Confederation. Constitutional Convention.

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Articles of confederation
Articles ofConfederation


Name the meeting in which delegates from 12 states met to revise the articles of confederation
Name the meeting in which delegates from 12 states met to revise the Articles of Confederation.


Constitutional convention
Constitutional revise the Articles of Confederation.Convention


What kind of government did james madison propose
What kind of government did James Madison propose? revise the Articles of Confederation.


Republic - revise the Articles of Confederation.a form of government in which power resides with the citizens who elect representatives to make laws



Virginia plan new jersey plan
Virginia Plan delegates debate?& New Jersey Plan


How did they compromise
How did they compromise? delegates debate?


The great compromise
The delegates debate?Great Compromise


What compromise did the delegates come up with regarding how slaves votes should be counted
What compromise delegates debate?did the delegates come up with regarding how slaves’ votes should be counted?


3 5 compromise
3/5 delegates debate?Compromise


What compromise did the delegates come up with regarding how the president should be elected
What compromise delegates debate?did the delegates come up with regarding how the president should be elected?


Electoral college
Electoral delegates debate?College



Ratification
Ratification place...



  • Sovereignty place...: supreme power of government rests with the people

    • electorate (voters) choose leaders to make laws and run the country

    • US is not a “democracy” but a representative democracy or republic

  • Constitutionalism: all representatives are bound by the rules of the Constitution

    • lawmakers cannot just make up laws as they see fit

  • Federalism: national government and state governments share power and authority




The members of congress
The Members of Congress place...

  • First article of the Constitution described the legislative branch

  • Congress is at the head of this branch


Congress is bicameral or has two bodies parts
Congress is “bicameral” or has two bodies (parts): place...

Senate

House

of

Representatives


The senate
The Senate place...

  • 100 members – two from each state

  • Qualifications:

    • 30 years old

    • citizen of US for nine years

    • must be resident of state represented

    • Senators elected by the people (17th Amendment)

    • six year term

    • one third of senators are up for re-election every two years

  • Vice President of US is president of the Senate – presides over sessions

  • President Pro Tempore, majority leader, minority leader are other senate leaders


  • House of representatives
    House of Representatives place...

    • 435 members – the number of representatives is based on a state’s population

    • Reapportionment happens every 10 years

    • Georgia has 13 representatives based on the 2000 census

    • Qualifications:

      • 25 years old

      • citizen of US for seven years

      • must be resident of state represented

      • two year term

  • Speaker of the House and majority leader are leaders in the House


  • The powers of congress
    The Powers of Congress place...

    • expressed powers: written in the Constitution

    • implied powers: derive from the expressed powers, but not written specifically

    • elastic clause: Article 1, Section 8 stretches the power of Congress to include implied powers


    How congress operates
    How Congress Operates place...

    • Committees are used to organize work of Congress



    The executive branch of government1
    The Executive Branch of Government place...

    • The president has enough power to do the job, but the Constitution keeps him from having too much power

    • Founding fathers did not want another king

    • In the beginning, the Electoral College had the job of choosing the president


    The electoral college
    The Electoral College place...

    • electors: members of the Electoral College chosen from each state

    • Electors vote for the president; citizens vote for electors, not directly for the president

    • 538 electors: number matches the number of senators and representatives from each state

    • The candidate with the most votes in a state gets all the electors

    • Electors are not legally bound to vote for the candidate chosen by the state’s citizens

    • Electors meet in their state’s capitol; votes sent to the president of the Senate

    • Inauguration Day is January 20 following the election in November


    Parts of the executive branch
    Parts of the Executive Branch place...

    President & Vice President Qualifications

    • 35 years old

    • natural-born citizen

    • resident of US for 14 years

    • limited to two terms

      (22nd Amendment)

    • Vice President takes over if the President dies, resigns, or is removed from office.

    Barack Obama

    Joe Biden



    The cabinet
    The Cabinet if vice president cannot take over

    • Members advise the president

    • Serve as heads of the executive departments

    • Members appointed by the president and approved by the Senate

    • Currently 15 members


    Independent agencies
    Independent Agencies if vice president cannot take over

    • Serve public interest and keep government running smoothly

    • EPA: Environmental Protection Agency – example of independent agency, supervises efforts to clean air and water

    • GSA: General Services Administration – oversees spending by the government


    Federal regulatory commissions
    Federal Regulatory Commissions if vice president cannot take over

    • Have power to make rules and punish violators

    • Leaders appointed by the president

    • Examples:

      • FCC: Federal Communications Commission

      • SEC: Securities & Exchange Commission

      • FDA: Food & Drug Administration


    Government corporations
    Government Corporations if vice president cannot take over

    • Established to provide products or services for the American people

    • Examples:

      • FDIC: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation – insures bank deposits and protects banking customers

      • USPS: United States Postal Service

    Click to return to Table of Contents.


    The judicial branch of government
    The Judicial Branch of Government if vice president cannot take over


    Judicial branch of government
    Judicial Branch of Government if vice president cannot take over

    • Supreme Court

    • Lower federal courts a part of this branch

    • Decide the meaning and interpretation of the Constitution and laws

    • Protects citizens from mistreatment by other branches of government


    The supreme court
    The Supreme Court if vice president cannot take over

    • Highest court in USA

    • Chief justice plus eight associate justices

    • Decides cases involving foreign countries or between states

    • Reviews decisions

      of lower courts

    • judicial review: ability

      to set aside actions of

      the legislative or judicial

      branch

    • Chief justice presides over impeachments


    Other federal courts
    Other Federal Courts if vice president cannot take over

    • Congress established federal circuit court districts

    • Georgia has three district court regions

    • US Court of Appeals for 11th Circuit is in Atlanta

    • Bankruptcy courts are a part of this system


    Special courts
    Special Courts if vice president cannot take over

    • Courts for special purposes

    • Examples:

      • Tax Court

      • US Court of Appeals for Armed Forces

      • US Court of International Trade

      • US Court of Federal Claims


    The system of checks and balances
    The System of if vice president cannot take overChecks and Balances

    • Constitution keeps the branches of government equally important

    • Sometimes the branches of government do not get along well – conflicts can arise if one branch tries to find a way around another


    Executive Branch

    Checks on the Legislative Branch


    • Nominates judges to the Supreme Court if vice president cannot take over

    • Nominates judges to the federal court system

    • President has the power to pardon individuals convicted of crimes

    • President can grant amnesty, forgiving a class of crime

    Executive Branch

    Checks on the Judicial Branch


    • Congress can overturn a Presidential veto with a 2/3 vote of both houses

    • Senate can reject proposed treaties (2/3 vote to approve)

    • Senate can reject presidential nominations of federal officials or judges

    • Congress can impeach and remove the President (House serves as prosecution, Senate serves as jury)

    Legislative Branch

    Checks on the Executive Branch


    • Congress can create lower courts both houses

    • Senate can reject nominees to the federal courts/Supreme Court

    • Congress can amend the Constitution to overturn decisions of the Supreme Court

    • Congress can impeach judges and remove from the bench

    Legislative Branch

    Checks on the Judicial Branch


    Judicial Branch

    Checks on the Executive Branch


    Judicial Branch

    Checks on the Legislative Branch


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