Validation of model transformations first experiences using a white box approach
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Validation of Model Transformations - First Experiences using a White Box Approach. Jochen K üster 1 , Mohamed Abd-El-Razik 2 1 IBM Research , 2 IBM Cairo Technology Development Center. Outline of the talk. Model Transformations for Business Process Models

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Validation of model transformations first experiences using a white box approach

Validation of Model Transformations- First Experiences using a White Box Approach

Jochen Küster1, Mohamed Abd-El-Razik2

1IBM Research, 2IBM Cairo Technology Development Center

Zurich Research Laboratory - BIT http://bpia.zurich.ibm.com


Outline of the talk

Outline of the talk

  • Model Transformations for Business Process Models

  • Testing Techniques for Model Transformations

  • Conclusions

Zurich Research Laboratory - BIT http://bpia.zurich.ibm.com


Validation of model transformations first experiences using a white box approach

Business

Requirements

Background: Business-Driven Development

business process monitoring,

change of strategy

Business Model

Model refinement

Business Process Model

Model transformation

Technology

BPEL, WSDL, J2EE, WebSphere

IT

Solution

Business-driven development comprises:

  • Modeling of business processes

  • Transformation and refinement of business process models

  • Mapping of processes to Service-oriented Architecture

Zurich Research Laboratory - BIT http://bpia.zurich.ibm.com


Validation of model transformations first experiences using a white box approach

Model Transformations on Business Process Models

  • Cycle Removal Transformation

  • Transformations for Abstraction and Refinement

  • Transformations into a Normal Form (Control Action To Pinset)

Control Action To Pinset

transformation

Zurich Research Laboratory - BIT http://bpia.zurich.ibm.com


Conceptual rules for transformation design

Conceptual Rules for Transformation Design

A

B1

B1

Abstract node type:

A

A

  • Conceptual rules capture the main concepts of the transformation

  • Conceptual rules are refined into concrete rules by:

    • Replacing abstract node types with concrete ones

    • Replacing abstract edges with possible instantiations

    • Replacing abstract pin sets with possible instantiations

  • large meta model and elaborate OCL constraints

  • model transformation is implemented in Java using a transformation framework

Abstract pinset:

..

..

Abstract edge:

Bn

Bn

Zurich Research Laboratory - BIT http://bpia.zurich.ibm.com


Outline of the talk1

Outline of the talk

  • Model Transformations for Business Process Models

  • Testing Techniques for Model Transformations

  • Conclusions

Zurich Research Laboratory - BIT http://bpia.zurich.ibm.com


Motivation for testing model transformations

Motivation for Testing Model Transformations

Statement: “Model Transformations are software too.”

  • need to be properly tested in order to ensure their quality

  • have specific characteristics that require special test case generation approaches

    Testing challenges:

  • Generation of test cases from model transformation specifications

  • Generation of test oracles for determining expected result of test

Zurich Research Laboratory - BIT http://bpia.zurich.ibm.com


Fault model for model transformations

Fault Model for Model Transformations

Fault Model: what errors are we looking for?

  • Meta model coverage: Some input models are not transformed because conceptual rule has not been refined completely

  • Syntactically incorrect models: Output model is not syntactically correct (e.g. OCL constraint violated)

  • Semantically incorrect models: Output model is not semantically correct (e.g. Fork has been replaced by an implicit decision)

  • Confluence errors: Transformation produces different outputs on the same (or equivalent) input model

  • Correctness of transformation semantics: Transformation does not preserve a desired property

Zurich Research Laboratory - BIT http://bpia.zurich.ibm.com


Meta model coverage testing 1

B1

B1

A

A

Conceptual rule:

..

..

Bn

Bn

X={StartNode, Fork, Join, Decision, Merge, Task,

Subprocess, LoopNode, Broadcast, AcceptSignal}

Y

X

Template(X,Y,Z):

Y={FinalNode, Fork, Join, Decision, Merge, Task,

Subprocess, LoopNode, Broadcast, AcceptSignal, Map}

Z

Z={FinalNode, Fork, Join, Decision, Merge, Task,

Subprocess, LoopNode, Broadcast, AcceptSignal, Map}

Meta model coverage testing (1)

Goal: Ensure meta model coverage of a conceptual rule

Approach: Convert conceptual rule into a template

  • Make selected abstract elements concrete

  • Parameterize remaining abstract elements by meta classes

Abstract pins and pin sets

Concrete elements

Zurich Research Laboratory - BIT http://bpia.zurich.ibm.com


Meta model coverage testing 2

Meta model coverage testing (2)

  • Template can be used to generate test cases automatically

  • Test cases can be used for automated testing

Benefits:

  • can be used for ensuring meta model coverage of implemented rules

  • can be used for finding selected syntactic and semantic errors

    Drawbacks:

  • properties that are not restricted to one rule cannot be validated

Test Cases:

Zurich Research Laboratory - BIT http://bpia.zurich.ibm.com


Constraint based testing

Constraint-based testing

Goal: Ensure that the model transformation does not violate constraints (e.g. OCL constraints)

Approach:

  • Identify model elements changed by the transformation (automatable)

  • Identify constraints that may be violated (automatable)

  • Construct a test case for each constraint (manually)

    Constraint: A Loopnode has one regular output pin set

    Test case:

Zurich Research Laboratory - BIT http://bpia.zurich.ibm.com


Rule pair testing 1

Rule Pair Testing (1)

Goal: Find confluence errors by testing

Background:

  • confluence requires that application of rules on the same model always yields the same result

  • rules can be analysed and verified whether they are confluent or not (see J. Küster, Definition and Validation of Model Transformations, SOSYM 5(3), September 2006)

  • absence of complete specification of rules: Testing for confluence using suitable test cases

Zurich Research Laboratory - BIT http://bpia.zurich.ibm.com


Rule pair testing 2

B1

A

..

Bn

C1

A2

..

Cn

Rule Pair Testing (2)

Approach:

  • test cases obtained by constructing models by overlapping the left sides of two rules

  • throw away incorrect models

Rule r1

Rule r3

Possible test case obtained by overlapping:

A2 = Fork, B1 = Decision

Zurich Research Laboratory - BIT http://bpia.zurich.ibm.com


Conclusions and future work

Conclusions and Future Work

  • Model transformations need appropriate testing techniques in order to ensure their quality

  • Testing techniques need to take into account fault model and implementation environment

  • Meta model coverage, constraint-based and rule pairs for test cases proposed

    Future work:

  • Automatic generation of test cases for constraints

  • Tool support

Zurich Research Laboratory - BIT http://bpia.zurich.ibm.com


Business integration technologies @ zurich research

The Business Integration Technologies group is part of a world-wide research initiative on Model-Driven Business Transformation.

BIT focuses on technologies for business-driven development.

Model

Transform

Manage

Integrate

Monitor

Business Integration Technologies @ Zurich Research

Process modeling methodologies

Reference model customization

Process model quality assurance

Flow-driven and state-driven modeling

Process Model Refinement

Top-down and Bottom-up transformations

- Analysis to Design model transformations

- Capturing of IT requirements & architectural mismatches

Zurich Research Laboratory - BIT http://bpia.zurich.ibm.com


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