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Surveys and Questionnaires. M. Burns FCS 5470. A few fine points…. Survey (method) v. questionnaire (tool) Assumptions Can read Willing and able Will complete to the best of his/her ability Usability . Advantages Inexpensive & easy Large, diverse groups Familiarity Anonymous

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a few fine points
A few fine points…
  • Survey (method) v. questionnaire (tool)
  • Assumptions
    • Can read
    • Willing and able
    • Will complete to the best of his/her ability
  • Usability

Russ-Eft & Preskill, 2001

usability
Advantages

Inexpensive & easy

Large, diverse groups

Familiarity

Anonymous

Quantitative

Disadvantages

Low response rate

Literate groups

Validity/reliability issues

Quantitative

Usability

Russ-Eft & Preskill, 2001

types of surveys
Types of Surveys
  • Post-course reaction forms
  • Behavioral or skill measures
  • Employee satisfaction
  • Knowledge tests

Russ-Eft & Preskill, 2001

post course reaction surveys
Post-course Reaction Surveys
  • Quality of instructional methods, facilities, materials, and instructors/facilitators
  • Many times poorly developed, thus limiting usability
  • Addresses what level in Kirkpatrick’s model?

Russ-Eft & Preskill, 2001

behavioral or skill measures
Behavioral or Skill Measures
  • Evaluates performance and change initiatives
  • Self-reported learning
  • May be used pre and/or post course or long-term post
  • Addresses what level in Kirkpatrick’s model?

Russ-Eft & Preskill, 2001

employee satisfaction survey
Employee Satisfaction Survey
  • Focuses on the impact that the intervention had on employee satisfaction
  • Commercially or self-developed
  • Administered pre and/or post course
  • Addresses what level in Kirkpatrick’s model?

Russ-Eft & Preskill, 2001

knowledge test
Knowledge Test
  • Evaluates learning, such as certification examination
  • Typically completed post-course, but could use the pre-course design
  • Example is RD exam

Russ-Eft & Preskill, 2001

guidelines for constructing surveys
Guidelines for Constructing Surveys
  • Anonymity and confidentiality
  • Determining question type
    • open-ended, fill-in-the-blank, dichotomous or two-choice question, multiple-choice, rating scales, and ranking
  • Question construction

Russ-Eft & Preskill, 2001

factors to consider when determining question type
Factors to consider when determining question type
  • Who will be answering the question?
  • How much time will respondents be able and willing to spend?
  • How many respondents will be involved?
  • How much is known about the range of possible answers?

Russ-Eft & Preskill, 2001

question types
Question Types
  • Open-ended
  • Fill-in-the-blank
  • Dichotomous
  • Multiple-choice
  • Rating
    • Likert, behaviorally anchored, behavior observation scale
  • Ranking

Russ-Eft & Preskill, 2001

question construction
Question Construction
  • Use understandable terms
    • No acronyms or double negatives
  • Avoid leading or loaded questions
    • Leads to biased responses
  • Avoid ‘double barreled’ questions
    • May only respond to one part

Russ-Eft & Preskill, 2001

common errors of question items
Common Errors of Question Items
  • Double barreled questions 78%
  • Leading/loaded questions 36%
  • Already know answer 21%
  • Use non-neutral wording 17%
  • 1+ response categories 17%
  • Not clear, concise, and simple 17%

Lee, 1998

format considerations
Format Considerations
  • One-page – if not use attractive cover page
  • Colored paper – numbered pages and items
  • Letter of instructions/support/usability
  • Visual appearance
  • Grouping of questions
  • Clear directions at beginning and at different sections
  • NO Tipo’s

Russ-Eft & Preskill, 2001

pilot testing
Pilot Testing
  • Purpose is to identify any weaknesses that you may have overlooked
  • Time to take the survey
  • Do the questions asked really address your evaluation goals?
  • Measure of validity and reliability

Russ-Eft & Preskill, 2001

logistics
Logistics
  • Paper v email v online
  • List of ‘possibles’ or sampling frame
  • Timeline for data collection, analysis, and reporting
  • Cover letter
    • Purpose, uses, sponsors/approvals, signatures, directions, and due date

Russ-Eft & Preskill, 2001

increasing response rate
Increasing Response Rate
  • Importance of survey
  • Keep it short!
  • Personal touch
  • Appearance
  • Incentives
  • Deadlines
  • Follow-up procedures

Russ-Eft & Preskill, 2001

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