Chapter 6 . Chemical Bonding. Chapter Sections:. Introduction to chemical bonding Covalent bonding & molecular compounds Ionic bonding & ionic compounds Metallic bonding Molecular geometry. Section 1:. Introduction to chemical bonding. Introduction to chemical bonding.
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A mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds the atoms together
They are working to achieve more stable arrangements where the bonded atoms will have lower potential energy than they do when existing as individual atoms.
1. Ionic – an electrical attraction that forms between cations (+) and anions (-)
2. Covalent – are formed when electrons are shared between atoms
3. Metallic – formed by many atoms sharing many electrons
The degree of attraction that an atom has to electrons that are within a bonded compound.
(see page 161)
2.5 - 2.1 = 0.4
2.5 - 0.7 = 1.8
2.5 – 3.0 = 0.5
If bonding elements are on opposite sides of the periodic table then they tend to be ionic.
If elements are close together, then they tend to be covalent.
A neutral group of atoms that are held together by covalent bonds.
H2 N2 O2 F2 Cl2 I2 Br2
Formation of a covalent bond:
Cl:Cl Shared pair
Lewis structures Differences
Cl - Cl
C=C means C::C
C≡C means C:::C
p. 189 #4 a – e
Ex: Na = 1+
Cl = 1-
However, water (H2O) is bent due to electrons repulsion!
London Dispersion forces: