Understanding the motivation to seek or keep a job among adults with smd
Download
1 / 94

Understanding the Motivation to Seek or Keep a Job among Adults with SMD - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 68 Views
  • Uploaded on

Understanding the Motivation to Seek or Keep a Job among Adults with SMD. Phyllis Panzano, Ph.D., Bev Seffrin, Ph.D., Sheri Chaney, M.A . Decision Support Services, Inc. Funded by the Ohio Department of Mental Health, The Social Security Administration & SAMHSA. GOALS OF THE RESEARCH.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Understanding the Motivation to Seek or Keep a Job among Adults with SMD' - haviva-black


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Understanding the motivation to seek or keep a job among adults with smd

Understanding the Motivation to Seek or Keep a Job among Adults with SMD

Phyllis Panzano, Ph.D., Bev Seffrin, Ph.D., Sheri Chaney, M.A.

Decision Support Services, Inc.

Funded by the Ohio Department of Mental Health,

The Social Security Administration & SAMHSA


Goals of the research
GOALS OF THE RESEARCH

  • To test a widely-studied model of work motivation on a sample of working adults with severe mental disabilities (SMD)

  • To explore differences in motivation to seek employment among non-working adults with SMD who are involved in vocational programming


Brief history
Brief History

  • Job Incentive Focus Project (JIF): Innovative Research Component

  • JIF Agency Participants:

    • Eastway MHC, Eastco (Dayton)

    • Coleman Professional Center (Kent, Canton & Warren)

    • COVA (Columbus)

    • The Zepf Center, Network (Toledo)


Brief history1
Brief History

  • Other participating organizations:

    • Amethyst

    • Columbus Area MHC – Pathway Clubhouse

    • Community Support Services

    • Concord Counseling

    • North Central Mental Health Center

    • Ohio Rehabilitation Services Commission

    • Southeast MHC

    • The Vision Center


Understanding the behavior of working adults adults seeking work
Understanding the Behavior of Working Adults & Adults Seeking Work

Performance/Behavior =

f (Ability, Motivation, Opportunity to Perform).


Motivation to maintain employment

Motivation to Seek Employment Seeking Work

Phase I

Phase II

Motivation to Maintain Employment


Motivation to maintain employment1
Motivation to Maintain Employment Seeking Work

  • BASED ON JOB CHARACTERISTICS THEORY

    • Hackman & Oldham (1976)

    • A Motivational Model based on the Design of Jobs

    • Original scales from the JDS reworded

    • New instrument (JPQ) validated

    • Measures added for tailoring to population of adults w/SMD


Current last versions of the jpq
Current & Last Versions of the JPQ Seeking Work

  • “Current Version” of the Job Profile Questionnaire (JPQ): for individuals who are currently working or in a work-like situation (n = 132)

  • “Last Version” of the JPQ: for individuals who are NOT currently working, but have had recent work experience (i.e., within the past 6 months) (n = 24)


Characteristics of respondents
Characteristics of Respondents Seeking Work

  • Age: 18 – 64, average age = 42

  • 59% male / 41% female

  • Tenure: 1 week - 18 years, average = 2 yrs

  • 89% Single, Divorced or Separated

  • 63% Caucasian, 30% African American & 7% Hispanic, American Native or Eskimo, or Other


Job titles
Job Titles Seeking Work

  • 34% - Factory/ assembly/trial job

  • 14% - Cleaning Services

  • 11% - Manager, Clerical, Office

  • 7.5% - Food Service Worker

  • 5% - Sales, Cashier


Hours worked week
Hours Worked/Week Seeking Work


Motivation to maintain employment2
Motivation to Maintain Employment Seeking Work

How You

SEE

Your

Job

How You

FEEL

About

Your

Job

Actions

And

Results

Deal Makers and Deal Breakers


Research questions
Research Questions Seeking Work

  • Does the original model based on job design that explains motivation to maintain employment apply to adults with SMD who are currently working?

  • What additions to the model were suggested by expert stakeholders?

  • Are added Actions & Results explained by the variables in the revised model?

  • All reported findings are statistically significant (p < .05).


Research questions1
Research Questions Seeking Work

  • Does the original model based on job design that explains motivation to maintain employment apply to adults with SMD who are currently working?

  • What additions to the model were suggested by expert stakeholders?

  • Are added Actions & Results explained by the variables in the revised model?

  • All reported findings are statistically significant (p < .05).


Motivation to maintain employment3
Motivation to Maintain Employment Seeking Work

How You

SEE

Your

Job

How You

FEEL

About

Your

Job

Actions

And

Results

Deal Makers and Deal Breakers


Motivation to maintain employment4

Variety of Skills Seeking Work

Task Identity

Significance to Others

Autonomy

Feedback from the Job

How You

SEE Your

Job

Motivation to Maintain Employment


How you see your job
How You See Your Job Seeking Work

% Who agree or strongly agree


Motivation to maintain employment5

Meaningfulness Seeking Work

Feelings of Responsibility

Knowledge of Results

How You

FEEL

About Your

Job

Motivation to Maintain Employment


How you feel about your job
How You Feel About Your Job Seeking Work

% Who agree or strongly agree


Does how you see your job relate to feelings about your job
Does “How You See Your Job” Relate to “Feelings about Your Job”?

  • 36% of Meaningfulness is explained by the combination of:

  • Variety of Skills

  • Task Identity

  • Significance to Others


Does how you see your job relate to feelings about your job1
Does “How You See Your Job” Relate to “Feelings about Your Job”?

  • 18% of Felt Responsibility is explained by the combination of:

    • Significance to Others and

    • Feedback from Job

  • 20% of Knowledge of Results is explained by the combination of:

    • Significance to Others and

    • Feedback from Job


Does how you see your job relate to feelings about your job2
Does “How You See Your Job” Relate to “Feelings about Your Job”?

  • Yes!

  • Perceived job features related to Meaningfulness, Feelings of Responsibility and Knowledge of Results in a pattern that is almost identical to the predictions of the model.

  • Significance of Work to Others emerged as an important variable. (Only 29% agree/ strongly agree that their work is significant to others.)


Motivation to maintain employment6
Motivation to Maintain Employment Your Job”?

How You

SEE

Your

Job

How You

FEEL

About

Your

Job

Actions

And

Results

Deal Makers and Deal Breakers


Motivation to maintain employment7

General Satisfaction Your Job”?

Perceived Job Performance

Internal Work Motivation

Satisfaction with Growth

Thoughts of Quitting

Actions

and

Results

Motivation to Maintain Employment


Actions and results
Actions and Results Your Job”?

% Who agree or strongly agree


Do feelings about the job relate to actions and results
Do “Feelings About the Job” Relate to “Actions and Results”?

  • 41% of General Satisfaction is explained by:

  • Meaningfulness


Do feelings about the job relate to actions and results1
Do “Feelings About the Job” Relate to “Actions and Results”?

  • 30% of Perceived Job Performance is explained by the combination of:

  • Meaningfulness

  • Feeling Responsible

  • Knowledge of Results


Do feelings about the job relate to actions and results2
Do “Feelings About the Job” Relate to “Actions and Results”?

  • 33% of Satisfaction with Growth is explained by

    • Meaningfulness and Knowledge of Results

  • 29% of Internal Work Motivation is explained by

    • Felt Responsibility and Knowledge of Results

  • 20% of Thoughts of Quitting is explained by

    • Meaningfulness (negative relationship).


  • Do feelings about the job relate to actions and results3
    Do “Feelings about the Job” Relate to “Actions and Results”?

    • Yes!

    • Meaningfulness, Feelings of Responsibility and Knowledge of Results DO relate to outcomes.

    • The patterns of relationships are logical.

    • Meaningfulness emerges as an important feeling about the job. (48% of respondents agree/strongly agree that their jobs are meaningful.)


    Motivation to maintain employment8
    Motivation to Maintain Employment Results”?

    How You

    SEE

    Your

    Job

    How You

    FEEL

    About

    Your

    Job

    Actions

    And

    Results

    Deal Makers and Deal Breakers


    Motivation to maintain employment9

    Need for Growth is expected to strengthen the links between the other boxes

    Deal Makers and Deal Breakers

    Motivation to Maintain Employment


    Deal makers and breakers
    Deal Makers and Breakers the other boxes

    % Important or Very Important


    Motivation to maintain employment10
    Motivation to Maintain Employment the other boxes

    How You

    SEE

    Your

    Job

    How You

    FEEL

    About

    Your

    Job

    Actions

    And

    Results

    Deal Makers and Deal Breakers


    Answering research question 1
    Answering Research Question #1 the other boxes

    • Q: Does the original model based on job design that explains motivation to maintain employment apply to adults with SMD who are currently working?

    • A:This model provides a good fit to working adults with SMD.


    Why is this important
    Why is this important? the other boxes

    • Workers’ perceptions about their jobs relate to important actions & results.

    • Jobs can be redesigned to improve reactions to the job (e.g., Skill Variety).

    • Perceived features of the job are candidates for job crafting and this can also improve reactions to jobs (e.g., Significance of Work to Others).


    Research question 2
    Research Question #2 the other boxes

    • What additions to the model were suggested by expert stakeholders?


    Motivation to maintain employment11
    Motivation to Maintain Employment the other boxes

    How You

    See

    Your Job

    (additions)

    How You

    Feel

    About

    Your Job

    (addition)

    Actions

    And

    Results

    (additions)

    Deal Makers & Breakers

    (additions)


    Motivation to maintain employment12

    Dealing with Others the other boxes

    Significance of Working to Self

    Feedback from Agents (Coworkers & Supervisors)

    Emotional Labor

    How You

    SEE Your

    Job

    (additions)

    Motivation to Maintain Employment


    Motivation to maintain employment13

    Emotional Dissonance the other boxes

    How You

    FEEL About Your Job

    (additions)

    Motivation to Maintain Employment


    Motivation to maintain employment14

    Identity as a Worker the other boxes

    Skill Match

    Satisfactions with Job-related Aspects (10)

    Issues for Workers from Vocational Programming (7)

    Satisfaction of Needs (6)

    Deal Makers and Deal Breakers

    Motivation to Maintain Employment


    Motivation to maintain employment15

    Commitment to Supervisor the other boxes

    Empowerment

    Career Maturity

    Perc’d Improvement General Health/ Mental Health

    Job Strain

    Actions

    and

    Results

    (additions)

    Motivation to Maintain Employment


    Additional actions and results
    Additional Actions and Results the other boxes

    % Who Agree or Strongly Agree


    Answering research question 2
    Answering Research Question #2 the other boxes

    • Q: Do Stakeholders Suggest Unique Additions to this Model?

    • A: Yes! Additions were added to every facet of the model.


    Research question 3
    Research Question #3 the other boxes

    • Are added Actions & Results explained by the variables in the revised model?




    Are added actions results explained by the variables in the revised model2

    45% of the revised model?Commitment to Supervisor

    42% Original Model & 3% Additions

    40% of Career Maturity

    28% Original Model & 12% Additions

    32% Of Perceived Improvement – Health

    22% Original Model & 10% Additions

    Are added Actions & Results explained by the variables in the revised model?


    Answering research question 3
    Answering Research Question #3 the revised model?

    • Q: Are added Actions & Results explained by the variables in the revised model?

    • A: Yes! All additional Actions & Results are related to original model variables.

    • Variables added for this research ALSO explain Actions & Results.


    Research question 1
    Research Question 1 the revised model?

    • Q: Does the original motivational model apply to working adults w/SMD?

    • A: The model fits very well & operates as predicted.

    • Implication: Worker perceptions of job design are important to consider in supported employment programs.


    Research question 21
    Research Question 2 the revised model?

    • Q: Did expert stakeholders suggest additions to the model?

    • A: Yes, additions were made to every facet of the model.

    • Implication: Outcomes valued by consumers (e.g., empowerment) need to be considered to fully understand motivation to maintain employment.


    Research question 31
    Research Question 3 the revised model?

    • Q: Are added Actions & Results explained by the variables in the revised model?

    • A: All additional Actions & Results are related to model variables.

    • Implication: Alternative definitions of employment success need to be recognized in vocational programming.


    Conclusions for motivation to maintain employment
    Conclusions for Motivation to Maintain Employment the revised model?

    • The original motivational model based on Job Characteristics Theory provides a good fit for working adults w/SMD.

    • Additions to the model are important for understanding valued work and developmental outcomes.

    • Job design is important to consider in supported employment programming.


    Understanding the motivation to seek maintain employment

    Motivation to Seek Employment the revised model?

    Phase I

    Phase II

    Motivation to Maintain Employment

    Understanding the Motivation to Seek/Maintain Employment


    Understanding the motivation to seek employment

    Phase I: Motivation to Seek Employment the revised model?

    Phase II: Preparation for Job Search

    Motivation to Maintain Employment

    Understanding the Motivation to Seek Employment


    Motivation to seek employment
    Motivation to Seek Employment the revised model?

    • FIELD DRIVEN!

      • Interviews with MH specialists in Vocational Rehabilitation

      • Focus groups with Consumers

    • ORGANIZED WITH CLASSIC PRINCIPLES OF INDUSTRIAL/ ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

      • Personnel Selection

      • Expectancy Theory


    Expectancy theory
    Expectancy Theory the revised model?

    • Motivation to work will be higher if having a job is seen as instrumental to valued outcomes.

      • I think I would be happier if I had a job.

      • Work would be good for me for many reasons.

      • The sooner I get a job the better.

      • If I got a job it would cause more problems than it would solve.


    Motivation to seek employment1
    Motivation to Seek Employment the revised model?

    • Exploratory portion of the research

    • Goal: Investigate differences in motivation to seek employment among adults with little working experience


    Phase i motivation to seek employment
    Phase I: Motivation to Seek Employment the revised model?

    Past Working Behavior

    Motivation to Work

    Intended or Actual Future Working Behavior


    Preview version
    Preview Version the revised model?

    • The “Preview Version” of the Job Profile Questionnaire (JPQ) is designed for individuals who have never worked, or who have not been in a work-like experience for an extended period (more than 6 months)

    • 262 of the participants in the research completed the PREVIEW Version of the JPQ.


    Primary assumptions
    Primary Assumptions the revised model?

    • Individuals in vocational programming are “ready to work”

    • Individuals have varying levels of motivation to work

    • Motivation explains differences in job seeking behavior & work outcomes


    Methods
    Methods the revised model?

    Q: Who provided data?

    A: Staff and Consumers

    Q: How were data gathered?

    A: Paper-pencil or JPQ Software


    Jpq software
    JPQ Software the revised model?

    • All staff and consumer versions available on the software

    • Print blank questionnaires

    • Print feedback reports

    • Microsoft Access

    • Easy as “1, 2, 3”



    Profile of consumer participants1
    Profile of Consumer Participants the revised model?

    • 207 non-working adults with SMD in vocational programming (M version)

    • 55 other non-working adults in vocational programming (N version)


    Profile of consumer participants2
    Profile of Consumer Participants the revised model?

    • 207 non-working adults with SMD in vocational programming (M version)

    • 55 other non-working adults in vocational programming (N version)


    Demographics
    Demographics the revised model?

    • 62% male, 38% female

    • 60% Caucasian, 35% African American

    • Age range 18 – 61, average age = 38

    • 90% Single, Separated, or Divorced

    • 61% Economically Disadvantaged


    Type of work in last five years
    Type of Work in Last Five Years the revised model?

    • 66% Full and/or Part Time

    • 16% Short Term and/or Temporary

    • 15% Volunteer and/or Odd Jobs

    • 3% No work



    Exploratory issue 1
    Exploratory Issue 1 the revised model?

    Exploring the Components of Motivation to Work


    Four components of motivation to work
    Four Components of the revised model?Motivation to Work

    • Affective Motivation to Work (a = .81)

      • I think about how I would be happier if I had a job.

  • Positive Expectations about Work (a = .79)

    • Work would be good for me for many reasons.


  • Four components of motivation to work1
    Four Components of the revised model?Motivation to Work

    • Urgency to Work (a = .84)

      • The sooner I get a job the better.

  • Anxiety about Working (a = .79)

    • If I got a job it would cause more problems than it would solve




  • Correlations among four components

    Components are related, but each provides unique information the revised model?

    Correlations among Four Components


    Summary components of motivation to work
    Summary: Components of Motivation to Work the revised model?

    • Although participants may be “ready” to work, they differ in Motivation to Work.

    • Four components from this study reveal important differences among respondents.

    • Realistic rather than uniformly high scores on each component may be the ideal goal for programming.


    Exploratory issue 2
    Exploratory Issue 2 the revised model?

    Key Factors Linked to Four Components of Motivation to Seek Employment


    Issues for workers with smd linked to four components
    Issues for Workers with SMD Linked to Four Components* the revised model?

    • Symptom Awareness (r = .27 - .30)

      • The symptoms of my mental illness are present when I carry out my daily living activities.

  • Loss of Benefits Concern (r = .18 - .32)

    • I worry about how working will affect my benefits.

  • Ownership of Job Choice (r = .46 - .47)

    • I am being given the opportunity to make my job choice.

  • *Absolute values for significant correlations used for range

    The first are issues for workers with SMD, they are symptom awareness, loss of benefit concern and ownership of job choice.


    Support from significant others linked to four components
    Support from Significant Others Linked to Four Components* the revised model?

    • Support from Family and Friends (r = .18 - .23)

      • My family and friends encourage me to work.

  • Support from Vocational Rehab Staff(r = .24 - .24)

    • Vocational rehab staff encourage me to work.

  • *Absolute values used for correlations range


    Clients beliefs about working linked to four components
    Clients’ Beliefs about Working Linked to Four Components* the revised model?

    • Interest in Working(r = .43 - .58)

      • Interesting – Boring

  • Feelings of Permanence(r = .36 - .46)

    • Short term – Long term

  • Expected Job Strain(r = .30 - .40)

    • I think I will be stressed out at work.

  • *Absolute values used for correlations range


    Client development linked to four components
    Client Development Linked to the revised model?Four Components*

    • Identity as a Worker (r = .44 - .48)

      • I think of myself as a working person.

  • Empowerment (r = .24 - .54)

    • I see myself as a capable person.

  • Importance of Having a Job (r = .17 - .45)

    • How important is having a job?

  • Self Efficacy, Previous Experience (r = .28)

    • I believe I can do well at a job because of my previous experience.


  • Summary key factors linked to components of motivation to seek employment
    Summary: Key Factors Linked to Components of Motivation to Seek Employment

    • The four components of motivation to seek employment are related to a core group of factors.

    • Many of these factors can be modified through programming, education, or work experience.


    Exploratory issue 3
    Exploratory Issue 3 Seek Employment

    How do these key factors relate to the Affective Motivation component?



    Summary how do these key factors relate to affective motivation
    Summary: How do these Key Factors Seek Employmentrelate to Affective Motivation?

    • Key factors explain Affective Motivation to work extraordinarily well.

    • “Beliefs about Working” seems particularly important.


    Exploratory issue 4
    Exploratory Issue 4 Seek Employment

    Is there a link between past work behavior and intended future behavior?



    Conclusions re motivation to seek employment
    Conclusions re: Seek EmploymentMotivation to Seek Employment

    • This research explored four components of Motivation to Seek Employment

    • Four components from this study reveal important differences in motivation to seek employment among adults in vocational programming.


    Conclusions re motivation to seek employment1
    Conclusions re: Seek EmploymentMotivation to Seek Employment

    • Key factors related to these four components can be influenced through programming.

    • Past work behavior is positively linked to intention to work. Gaining work experience is important.


    Understanding the behavior of working adults adults seeking work1
    Understanding the Behavior of Working Adults & Adults Seeking Work

    Performance/Behavior =

    f (Ability, Motivation, Opportunity to Perform).


    Understanding the behavior of working adults adults seeking work2
    Understanding the Behavior of Working Adults & Adults Seeking Work

    Performance/Behavior =

    f (Ability, Motivation, Opportunity to Perform).


    Supported employment
    Supported Employment Seeking Work

    • A way to assist persons with SMD choose, get and keep paid jobs in integrated employment settings by providing a wide range of needed supports so that the psychological and economic benefits of work can be realized

    • Support is a function not a setting

    • Assumption: working sooner not later, generally is better.



    Closing comments

    Closing Comments Seeking Work

    We welcome your questions

    and observations!


    ad