Lecture 1: Introduction. Content. Course objectives Systems Engineering (SE) definitions Benefits of SE A Universal Ontology for SE System, Function, and Concept. Course Objectives. Study about systems and their development: How to analyze systems How to model systems
Lecture 1: Introduction
INCOSE – International Council on Systems Engineering Systems Engineering Handbook
“The top level process of engineering a system to meet overall requirements.”
“The application of engineering to solutions of a complete problem in its full environment by systematic assembly and matching of parts in the context of the lifetime use of the system.”www.ichnet.org/glossary.htm
Engineering Systems At MIT
“Systems engineering is the branch of engineering concerned with the development of large and complex systems.
Systems engineering focuses on the real-world goals for, services provided by, and constraints on such systems;
the precise specification of system structure and behavior, and the implementation of these specifications;
the activities required in order to develop an assurance that the specifications and real-world goals have been met;
the evolution of such systems over time and across system families. It is also concerned with the processes, methods and tools for the development of systems in an economic and timely manner.”
Related to systems engineering, which is an important profession and practice, engineering systems is a field of scholarship that includes systems engineering as well as a broader set of disciplines. Engineering systems has an added focus on social, environmental, technological, and political contexts.
Watch some of the 7 min. video:
~15% of the
Much of the system or product’s value, cost and risk are determined here.
Better system quality and value
“System Thinking” Design
Total Program Overrun
32 NASA Programs
NASA Tracking 1980s
% Investment in
System Engineering Effort (SEE)
Time-Phased Sensitivity of SE to Total System Lifecycle Cost
Commitment to Technology,
Configuration, Performance, Cost, etc.
Ease of Change
Phase out, and Disposal
Commitment, System-Specific Knowledge, and Cost
Systems Engineering is important early in a program to influence the design,
when incurred costs are low and design changes are easy.
Concept and Technology Development
Detailed Design and
System Design Phase
Individual Design Disciplines
Systems Design and Development Progress
Systems Engineering is multi- and interdisciplinary.
Early discovery of design errors saves expenses down the road.
Systems Engineering deals only with requirements definitions.
Focus on individual disciplines increases as we move from conceptual to detailed design.
Systems Engineering effort improves development quality
Cost & schedule improved
Hypothesis is supported by the data
Optimum Systems Engineering effort is 10-15%
Matches data from NASA projects
Cost & schedule overruns are minimized
Systems Engineering must have its ontology and modeling language!
Like any engineering discipline, SE must be based on solid foundations of a modeling language
A system is a function-carrying object.
The function is the main process the system performs.
Specific systems have specific stakeholders.
Any more stakeholders? For what systems?
System architecture is the overall system’s structure-behaviorcombination, which enables it to attain its function while embodying the architect's concept.
System architecture combines structure and behavior to provide function.
Every function has exactly one concept by which it can be achieved.
Product is to object what service it to process.
For simple systems or products, the owner, user and beneficiary are one and the same.
A Universal Ontology for Systems Science & Engineering
Stateful Object – Object with States
An object is a thing that exists or can exist physically or informatically.
A name of an object must be singular. Plural has to be converted to singular.
A state is a possible situation at which an object can be, or a value it can assume, for some positive amount of time.
A process is a thing that transforms an object.
In other words:
A process is a pattern of objecttransformation.
A process name is a phrase whose last word should be the gerund form of a verb, a verb with the "ing" suffix.
The System Diagram (SD) ofProduct Lifecycle Engineering
Zooming into Product Lifecycle Engineering
The System Map: A Tree View
The System Map: All the OPDs in one View
Zooming into the Details of Design
Zooming into the Details of Manufacturing
Zooming into Initial Shaping within Making
Zooming into Software Module Developing within Making
Zooming into Assembly & Testing
Zooming into Commerce
Zooming into Use & Service
SD1.4 - End Of Life in-zoomed
Zooming into End-of-Life
Clear, intuitive, consistent graphical and textual communication language among all stakeholders.
A comprehensible model of the system
The model evolves throughout the system lifecycle.
System animation and simulation for design level debugging.
Preservation of actionable knowledge for effective maintenance and future generations development via OPCAT’s built-in evolution mechanism.
Product and system lifecycle ontology is needed as a common language among the various stakeholders.
OPM offers a foundational, domain-independent ontology that is based on the notion of stateful objects and processes that transform them.
Using OPM, we have constructed a model-driven ontology for products and systems throughout their lives.