Networks and algorithms in bio informatics
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Networks and Algorithms in Bio-informatics. D. Frank Hsu Fordham University [email protected] *Joint work with Stuart Brown; NYU Medical School Hong Fang Liu; Columbia School of Medicine and Students at Fordham, Columbia, and NYU. Outlines. (1) Networks in Bioinformatics

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Networks and algorithms in bio informatics

Networks and Algorithms in Bio-informatics

D. Frank HsuFordham [email protected]

*Joint work with Stuart Brown; NYU Medical School Hong Fang Liu; Columbia School of Medicineand Students at Fordham, Columbia, and NYU


Outlines

Outlines

(1) Networks in Bioinformatics

(2) Micro-array Technology

(3) Data Analysis and Data Mining

(4) Rank Correlation and Data Fusion

(5) Remarks and Further Research


1 networks in bioinformatics

(1) Networks in Bioinformatics

  • Real NetworksGene regulatory networks, Metabolic networks, Protein-interaction networks.

  • Virtual NetworksNetwork of interacting organisms, Relationship networks.

  • Abstract NetworksCayley networks, etc.


1 networks in bioinformatics a b

(1) Networks in Bioinformatics, (A)&(B)

DNA RNAProtein

Biosphere - Network of interacting organisms

Organism - Network of interacting cells

Cell - Network of interacting Molecules

Molecule - Genome, transcriptome, Proteome


The dbrf method for inferring a gene network

The DBRF Method for Inferring a Gene Network

S. Onami, K. Kyoda, M. Morohashi, H. Kitano

In “Foundations of Systems Biology,” 2002

Presented by Wesley Chuang


Positive vs negative circuit

Positive vs. Negative Circuit


Difference based regulation finding method dbrf

Difference Based Regulation Finding Method (DBRF)


Inference rule of genetic interaction

Inference Rule of Genetic Interaction

  • Gene a activates (represses) gene b if the expression of b goes down (up) when a is deleted.


Parsimonious network

Parsimonious Network

  • The route consists of the largest number of genes is the parsimonious route; others are redundant.

  • The regulatory effect only depends on the parity of the number negative regulations involved in the route.


Algorithm for parsimonious network

Algorithm for Parsimonious Network


A gene regulatory network model

A Gene Regulatory Network Model

node: gene

edge: regulation

va: expression level of gene a

Ra: max rate of synthesis

g(u): a sigmoidal function

W: connection weight

ha: effect of general transcription factor

λa: degradation (proteolysis) rate

Parameters were randomly determined.


Experiment results

Experiment Results

  • Sensitivity: the percentage of edges in the target network that are also present in the inferred network.

  • Specificity: the percentage of edges in the inferred network that are also present in the target network

N: gene number

K: max indegree


Continuous vs binary data

Continuous vs. Binary Data


Dbrf vs predictor method

DBRF vs. Predictor Method


Inferred yeast gene network

Inferred (Yeast) Gene Network


Known vs inferred gene network

Known vs. Inferred Gene Network


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • Applicable to continuous values of expressions.

  • Scalable for large-scale gene expression data.

  • DBRF is a powerful tool for genome-wide gene network analysis.


3 data analysis and data mining

(3) Data Analysis and Data Mining

  • cDNA microarray & high-clesity oligonucleotide chips

  • Gene expression levels,

  • Classification of tumors, disease and disorder (already known or yet to be discovered)

  • Drug design and discovery, treatment of cancer, etc.


3 data analysis and data mining1

(3) Data Analysis and Data Mining


3 data analysis and data mining2

(3) Data Analysis and Data Mining

Tumor classification - three methods

(a) identification of new/unknown tumor classes using gene expression profiles. (Cluster analysis/unsupervised learning)

(b) classification of malignancies into known classes. (discriminant analysis/supervised learning)

(c) the identification of “marker” genes that characterize the different tumor classes (variable selection).


3 data analysis and data mining3

(3) Data Analysis and Data Mining

Cancer classification and identification

  • HC – hierarchical clustering methods,

  • SOM – self-organizing map,

  • SVM – support vector machines.


3 data analysis and data mining4

(3) Data Analysis and Data Mining

Prediction methods (Discrimination methods)

  • FLDA – Fisher’s linear discrimination analysis

  • ML – Maximum likelihood discriminat rule,

  • NN – nearest neighbor,

  • Classification trees,

  • Aggregating classifiers.


Rank correlation and data fusion

Rank Correlation and Data Fusion

  • Problem 1: For what A and B, P(C)(or P(D))>max{P(A),P(B)}?

  • Problem 2: For what A and B, P(C)>P(D)?


Networks and algorithms in bio informatics

  • Theorem 3:Let A, B, C and D be defined as before. Let sA=L and sB=L1L2 (L1 and L2 meet at (x*, y*) be defined as above). Let rA=eA be the identity permutation. If rB=t。eA, where t= the transposition (i,j), (i<j), and q<x*, then [email protected](C) [email protected](D).


S 4 s where s 1 2 2 3 3 4

(S4,S) where S={(1,2),(2,3),(3,4)}


S 4 t where t i j i j

(S4,T) where T={(i,j)|ij}


References

References

  • Lenwood S. Heath; Networks in Bioinformatics, I-SPAN’02, May 2002, IEEE Press, (2002), 141-150

  • Minoru Kanehisa; Prediction of higher order functional networks from genomie data, Bharnacogonomics (2)(4), (2001), 373-385.

  • D. F. Hsu, J. Shapiro and I. Taksa; Methods of data fusion in information retrieval; rank vs. score combination, DIMACS Technical Report 2002-58, (2002)

  • M. Grammatikakis, D. F. Hsu, and M. Kratzel; Parallel system interconnection and communications, CRC Press(2001).

  • S. Dudoit, J. Fridlyand and T. Speed; Comparison of discrimination methods for the classification of tumors using gene expressions data, UC Berkeley, Technical Report #576, (2000).


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