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History of Computer. What is a Computer? In its most basic form a computer is any device which aids humans in performing various kinds of computations or calculations. In that respect the earliest computer was the Abacus , used to perform basic arithmetic operations.

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History of computer
History of Computer


What is a Computer?In its most basic form a computer is any device which aids humans in performing various kinds of computations or calculations. In that respect the earliest computer was the Abacus, used to perform basic arithmetic operations.




Abacus may have technically been the first computer most people today associate the word “computer” with electronic computers which were invented in the last century, and have evolved into modern computers we know of today.


The calculating clock
The Calculating Clock

  • In 1623 German professor Wilhelm Schickard came up with a machine(Schickard Calculator)

  • Same size of typewriter and could perform basic operation on a maximum of six-digit numbers.


The pascaline
The Pascaline

  • Blaise Pascal, 1642, which is called Pascaline (also known as Arithmatique or Pascal’sAdder)

  • Perform addition and subtraction only.


The stepped reckoner
The Stepped Reckoner

  • Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, a German philosopher and mathematician.


The stepped reckoner1
The Stepped Reckoner

  • This machine was simply used for multiplication on many digital computers.


Jacquard loom
Jacquard Loom

  • Invented by the French inventor Joseph-Marie Jacquard in 1801.

  • This machine utilized punch cards to control a loom’s pattern of weaving.



The arithmometer
The Arithmometer

  • Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar of France was able to modified Leibniz calculator.

  • Another mechanical calculator that could perform basic operation.


The arithmometer1
The Arithmometer


The difference engine analytical engine
The Difference Engine & Analytical Engine

  • Charles Babbage, English mathematician.

  • The Analytical Engine remained in history as a template of good design that future engineers would utilize to perfect its intended use.



Felt smacaroni box and the comptometer
Felt’sMacaroni Box and the Comptometer


Felt smacaroni box and the comptometer1
Felt’sMacaroni Box and the Comptometer

  • DorrEugeneFelt, first invent key-driven mechanism.

  • RobertTarrant partnered with Felt in 1887 to produce Comptometer, key driven machine similar to today’s calculator.


First generation computers 1940s 1950s
First Generation Computers (1940s – 1950s)

First electronic computers used vacuum tubes, and they were huge and complex. The first general purpose electronic computer was the ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer).


First generation computers 1940s 1950s1
First Generation Computers (1940s – 1950s)

It was digital, although it didn’t operate with binary code, and was reprogrammable to solve a complete range of computing problems. It was programmed using plug boards and switches, supporting input from an IBM card reader, and output to an IBM card punch.


First generation computers 1940s 1950s2
First Generation Computers (1940s – 1950s)

It took up 167 square meters, weighed 27 tons, and consuming 150 kilowatts of power. It used thousands of vacuum tubes, crystal diodes, relays, resistors, and capacitors.


Eniac electronic numerical integrator and computer
ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer)



The second generation of computers came about thanks to the invention of the transistor, which then started replacing vacuum tubes in computer design. Transistor computers consumed far less power, produced far less heat, and were much smaller compared to the first generation, albeit still big by today’s standards.


The first transistor computer was created at the University of Manchester in 1953. The most popular of transistor computers was IBM 1401. IBM also created the first disk drive in 1956, the IBM 350 RAMAC.


Ibm 1401
IBM 1401 of Manchester in 1953. The most popular of transistor computers was IBM 1401. IBM also created the first disk drive in 1956, the IBM 350 RAMAC.


Third generation computers 1960s ibm system 360
Third Generation Computers of Manchester in 1953. The most popular of transistor computers was IBM 1401. IBM also created the first disk drive in 1956, the IBM 350 RAMAC. (1960s) IBM System/360


  • The invention of the of Manchester in 1953. The most popular of transistor computers was IBM 1401. IBM also created the first disk drive in 1956, the IBM 350 RAMAC.IntegratedCircuits (ICs), also known as microchips, paved the way for computers as we know them today.


  • Making circuits out of single pieces of of Manchester in 1953. The most popular of transistor computers was IBM 1401. IBM also created the first disk drive in 1956, the IBM 350 RAMAC.silicon, which is a semiconductor, allowed them to be much smaller and more practical to produce.



Ibm system 360
IBM System/360 larger number of transistors onto a single microchip. During the sixties microchips started making their way into computers, but the process was gradual, and second generation of computers still held on.


Fourth Generation Computers larger number of transistors onto a single microchip. During the sixties microchips started making their way into computers, but the process was gradual, and second generation of computers still held on.(1971 – present)First microchips-based central processing units consisted of multiple microchips for different CPU components. The drive for ever greater integration and miniaturization led towards single-chip CPUs, where all of the necessary CPU components were put onto a single microchip, called a microprocessor.


Fourth Generation Computers larger number of transistors onto a single microchip. During the sixties microchips started making their way into computers, but the process was gradual, and second generation of computers still held on.(1971 – present)The first single-chip CPU, or a microprocessor, was Intel 4004.The advent of the microprocessor spawned the evolution of the microcomputers, the kind that would eventually become personal computers that we are familiar with today.


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