History of computer
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History of Computer. What is a Computer? In its most basic form a computer is any device which aids humans in performing various kinds of computations or calculations. In that respect the earliest computer was the Abacus , used to perform basic arithmetic operations.

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History of Computer

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History of Computer

What is a Computer?In its most basic form a computer is any device which aids humans in performing various kinds of computations or calculations. In that respect the earliest computer was the Abacus, used to perform basic arithmetic operations.

Mechanical calculating machines

  • The human brain is the first intrinsic computing devices.

  • It has the capacity to store events, in the form of memories.

  • Process events, in the form of thinking.

  • Produce responses, in the form of actions and sounds.

Abacus may have technically been the first computer most people today associate the word “computer” with electronic computers which were invented in the last century, and have evolved into modern computers we know of today.

The Calculating Clock

  • In 1623 German professor Wilhelm Schickard came up with a machine(Schickard Calculator)

  • Same size of typewriter and could perform basic operation on a maximum of six-digit numbers.

The Pascaline

  • Blaise Pascal, 1642, which is called Pascaline (also known as Arithmatique or Pascal’sAdder)

  • Perform addition and subtraction only.

The Stepped Reckoner

  • Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, a German philosopher and mathematician.

The Stepped Reckoner

  • This machine was simply used for multiplication on many digital computers.

Jacquard Loom

  • Invented by the French inventor Joseph-Marie Jacquard in 1801.

  • This machine utilized punch cards to control a loom’s pattern of weaving.

Jacquard Loom

The Arithmometer

  • Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar of France was able to modified Leibniz calculator.

  • Another mechanical calculator that could perform basic operation.

The Arithmometer

The Difference Engine & Analytical Engine

  • Charles Babbage, English mathematician.

  • The Analytical Engine remained in history as a template of good design that future engineers would utilize to perfect its intended use.

The Difference Engine & Analytical Engine

Felt’sMacaroni Box and the Comptometer

Felt’sMacaroni Box and the Comptometer

  • DorrEugeneFelt, first invent key-driven mechanism.

  • RobertTarrant partnered with Felt in 1887 to produce Comptometer, key driven machine similar to today’s calculator.

First Generation Computers (1940s – 1950s)

First electronic computers used vacuum tubes, and they were huge and complex. The first general purpose electronic computer was the ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer).

First Generation Computers (1940s – 1950s)

It was digital, although it didn’t operate with binary code, and was reprogrammable to solve a complete range of computing problems. It was programmed using plug boards and switches, supporting input from an IBM card reader, and output to an IBM card punch.

First Generation Computers (1940s – 1950s)

It took up 167 square meters, weighed 27 tons, and consuming 150 kilowatts of power. It used thousands of vacuum tubes, crystal diodes, relays, resistors, and capacitors.

ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer)

Second Generation Computers (1955 – 1960)

The second generation of computers came about thanks to the invention of the transistor, which then started replacing vacuum tubes in computer design. Transistor computers consumed far less power, produced far less heat, and were much smaller compared to the first generation, albeit still big by today’s standards.

The first transistor computer was created at the University of Manchester in 1953. The most popular of transistor computers was IBM 1401. IBM also created the first disk drive in 1956, the IBM 350 RAMAC.

IBM 1401

Third Generation Computers (1960s) IBM System/360

  • The invention of the IntegratedCircuits (ICs), also known as microchips, paved the way for computers as we know them today.

  • Making circuits out of single pieces of silicon, which is a semiconductor, allowed them to be much smaller and more practical to produce.

  • This also started the ongoing process of integrating an ever larger number of transistors onto a single microchip. During the sixties microchips started making their way into computers, but the process was gradual, and second generation of computers still held on.

IBM System/360

Fourth Generation Computers (1971 – present)First microchips-based central processing units consisted of multiple microchips for different CPU components. The drive for ever greater integration and miniaturization led towards single-chip CPUs, where all of the necessary CPU components were put onto a single microchip, called a microprocessor.

Fourth Generation Computers (1971 – present)The first single-chip CPU, or a microprocessor, was Intel 4004.The advent of the microprocessor spawned the evolution of the microcomputers, the kind that would eventually become personal computers that we are familiar with today.

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