Absolute monarchs in europe 1500 1800
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Absolute Monarchs in Europe 1500-1800. By M.D. Bergquist World History Instructor Alexander High School. Europe Developed Into Absolute Monarchies. Feudalism had collapsed. National monarchies replaced. Intense competition for land and trade lead to many wars.

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Absolute Monarchs in Europe 1500-1800

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Absolute monarchs in europe 1500 1800

Absolute Monarchs in Europe1500-1800

By M.D. Bergquist

World History Instructor

Alexander High School


Europe developed into absolute monarchies

Europe Developed Into Absolute Monarchies

  • Feudalism had collapsed.

  • National monarchies replaced.

  • Intense competition for land and trade lead to many wars.

  • Religious differences sparked civil wars.

  • Absolute monarchy emerged to protect the nation and preserve order.

  • “Gunpowder Revolution” began.


Absolute monarchs in europe 1500 1800

  • European Monarchies sought to consolidate power

  • Hapsburgs one of the most powerful families

    • Charles V was H.R.E. and the king of Spain

    • Divided his realm upon retirement

    • Philip II got Spain, Holland, and S. Italy

    • Ferdinand (brother) was H.R.E

www.theotherside.co.uk/tm-heritage/ background/flanders.htm

http://www.tudorhistory.org/people/charles5/charlesv.jpg


Philip ii king of spain 1556 1598

Philip IIKing of Spain (1556-1598)

  • Philip II 1556

  • Sought to strengthen power through war

  • Seizes Portugal 1580

  • Wealthy from Gold and silver from Americas

  • Defender of Catholicism

  • Golden Age of Spanish art and literature

  • Weakened Spain by incessant wars and poor economic choices.

www.tudorhistory.org/ people/


Absolute monarchs in europe 1500 1800

  • Prudent King who build the

    El Escorial palace


B last of the spanish hapsburgs

B. Last of the Spanish Hapsburgs

  • 1550-1650, Spain’s golden century

    • Miguel de Cervantes’ Don Quixote

  • Wars, inflation, and wastefulness hurt Spain

    • Lost skilled artisans in Jews and Muslims

  • Philip’s successors overtaxed the people

    • Rebellion

  • Charles II, 1665 was the last Hapsburg

    • No heir

    • Other kings plotted to take over


France was wracked by religious warfare until henry of navarre agreed to be king 1589 1610

France was wracked by religious warfare until Henry of Navarre agreed to be king (1589-1610)

  • First of Bourbon dynasty

  • Issued Edict of Nantes which promised religious toleration.

  • Began to rebuild French economy.

  • Assassinated leaving 9-year old son to rule.

http://www.kfki.hu/~arthp/html/p/pourbus/frans_y/


Cardinal richelieu created a strong monarchy

Cardinal Richelieu created a strong monarchy.

  • Regent (1624-1642) for Louis XIII (1610-1643)

  • Richelieu broke the power of nobles and Protestants by destroying walled cities and castles.

  • Used the middle class for government jobs.

  • Challenged Hapsburg power by intervening in Thirty Years War.

http://home.nyu.edu/~rgr208/richelieu.jpg


When louis xiii died leaving his five year old son as king cardinal mazarin became regent 1643 1661

When Louis XIII died leaving his five year-old son as king Cardinal Mazarin became regent (1643-1661).

  • Continued Richelieu policies.

  • Generally disliked by the French people because of increased taxes and continued consolidation of royal power.

  • Fronde Revolt by nobles harshly suppressed.

http://www.ac-strasbourg.fr/pedago/lettres/Victor%20Hugo/Notes/Mazarin.htm


Louis xiv becomes the most powerful king in europe 1643 1715

Louis XIV becomes the most powerful king in Europe (1643-1715)

  • When Mazarin died, Louis assumed full control at age 23.

  • Worked long hours to strengthen France.

  • National army

  • Broke power of nobles and Protestants.

  • Restored economy via mercantilism.

  • Builder of the Palace of Versailles.

http://www.royalty.nu/Europe/France/LouisXIV.html


Solidified absolutism

Solidified absolutism

  • Promoted own image:

    • Sun King

    • Louis the Great

    • God’s representative on earth


Religious unification

Religious unification

  • “One king, one law, one faith”

  • Revoked Edict of Nantes, 1685


Absolute monarchs in europe 1500 1800

  • Louis XIV, The Sun King

  • The best and worst example

  • Of absolute monarchy.

  • “L’Etat c’est moi!”

  • Crippled France by fighting

  • a series of losing wars and

  • revoking the Edict of Nantes

  • On his deathbed he urged his

  • young grandson and heir

  • to avoid wars.


Ferdinand ii holy roman emperor 1619 1637

Ferdinand IIHoly Roman Emperor (1619-1637)

  • Wanted greater control of his Protestant nobles.

  • Touched off the Thirty Years War, which eventually involved most of western Europe.

  • Took German States 100 years to rebuild.

http://www.kaisergruft.at/anhang/ezhferdi.htm


Absolute monarchs in europe 1500 1800

The arrival of King Gustavus

Adolfus’ Swedish forces.

Next slide:

Soldiers sack and loot a home.

The Hanging Tree

The Thirty Years War (1618-1648)

  • Hapsburgs v. German Protestants

  • Sweden v. Hapsburgs

  • France v. Hapsburgs

  • Peace of Westphalia, 1648 - created modern Europe.

Musketeers prepare to fire a volley


Absolute monarchs in europe 1500 1800

The Thirty Years War

Many cities were destroyed and an estimated 4 million

Germans died. This is the Sack of Magdeburg

www.millikin.edu/history/ civilconflict/photo4.htm


Eastern europe

Eastern Europe

  • Slower to develop due to the many ethnic minorities and lack of development—primarily agricultural.

  • Feudalism still strong.

  • Hapsburg Family in control.

  • Maria Theresa, Queen of Austria. (1740-1780)

http://www.batguano.com/VLBmcaroline.jpg


Absolute monarchs in europe 1500 1800

  • 1740, Maria Theresa inherited the throne

    • Pragmatic Sanction was signed in 1718 to protect her rule

    • Charles VI did this

    • No training, but she was a good ruler and made Austria stronger


Prussia

Prussia

  • France and Prussia opposed pragmatic sanction

  • Brandenburg-Prussia was ruled by the Hohenzollern family

  • Gained land in the Thirty Years’ War

  • 1. Great Elector

    • Frederick William created a permanent standing army

    • The nobles, or Junkers, opposed his plan to raise taxes

    • Frederick allowed the Junkers to be free of taxes and to have power over peasants

    • Frederick I took over and became a king for his help against Louis XIV


Frederick the great 1740 1786 of prussia was determined to make prussia the dominate power

Frederick the Great (1740-1786) of Prussia was determined to make Prussia the dominate power.

  • Created a strong aggressive military.

    “ Most nations have an army, Prussia is an army with a nation”.

  • Promoted religious toleration and education at home.

  • Successfully made Prussia dominate power by defeating Austrians.

  • ( Seven Years War)

www.ncl.ac.uk/~nhistory/ german.htm


Absolute monarchs in europe 1500 1800

  • Followed father’s hard military policies (big standing army)

  • Thought the role of a government was to expand its territories

  • Was an atheist who disliked his wife and never had kids


Austria vs prussia

Austria vs. Prussia

  • Frederick the Great assumed that Maria would be easy to bully b/c she was a woman

  • Battled Prussia for a while but eventually lost

  • Eventually both countries (Austria and Prussia) got involved in different alliances throughout Europe


Russia centralized under the leadership of the tsars

Russia centralized under the leadership of the tsars


Absolute monarchs in europe 1500 1800

Ivan III

The Great

Ivan IV

The Terrible

Peter the Great

1672-1725

1462-1505

1533-1584

www.xenophongi.org/rushistory/ rusinwax/wax28s.jpg

www.ronaldbrucemeyer.com/ archive/peter.gif


Peter the great

PETER THE GREAT

  • transform Russia into a modern state.

  • Westernization

  • Peter realized country needed to modernize to catch up with rest of Europe

  • Wanted westernization; to bring elements of Western culture to Russia

  • 1697, journeyed to western Europe to see what Russia needed to modernize

  • New Skills

  • Peter traveled in disguise, was sometimes recognized anyway

  • Learned hands-on skills, especially shipbuilding

  • Recruited European experts to bring skills to Russia

  • Rebellion

  • Trip cut short by rebellion of streltsy, military corps with political influence

  • Thought streltsy wanted sister on throne; had members tortured, executed

  • Disbanded streltsy, organized more modern army


Absolute monarchs in europe 1500 1800

  • In addition to modernizing army, Peter made many other reforms

  • Brought church under state control

  • Built up Russian industry

  • Started first newspaper in Russia

  • Sponsored new schools

  • Modernized calendar, promoted officials on service, not social status


Absolute monarchs in europe 1500 1800

Peter also founded a new city

  • Early 1700s, fought Sweden to acquire warm-water port

    • Other ports choked by ice much of year

    • Port farther south on Baltic Sea to keep Russia open to western trade all year, connect Russia to west

  • On land won from Sweden, Peter built new capital, St. Petersburg

    • Russia’s government moved to new city

    • Featured Western-style architecture


English monarchs attempted to establish absolute system

English monarchs attempted to establish absolute system

  • James I (1603-1625) fought with Parliament over his authority.

  • Puritans wanted Anglican Church to reflect a Calvinist view.

  • James refused to cooperate, except for a new Bible translation.

www.bbc.co.uk/history


Charles loses his head in an argument

Charles loses his head in an argument

  • Charles I (1625-1649) pursued an aggressive foreign policy with Spain.

  • Continually sought new funds from Parliament, members checked his power by forcing him to sign the Petition of Right, 1628.

  • When Charles dissolved Parliament and tried to raise money, civil war resulted.

: www.mdarchives.state.md.us/.../ 01glance/images/charles1.jpg


Oliver cromwell defeats king s forces and became lord protector

Oliver Cromwell defeats king’s forces and became Lord Protector

  • Charles executed for treason.

  • On paper, England was a republic but in practice a dictatorship.

  • Cromwell suppressed revolt in Ireland.

  • Imposed Puritan ideals on English.

http://www.graham.day.dsl.pipex.com/civilwar-cromwell.gif


Monarchy restored

Monarchy Restored

  • When Cromwell died, so did his government.

  • English invited

    Charles II (1660-1685) to restore monarchy.

  • Reign was a period of calm marked by court decadence.


Monarchy in crisis

Monarchy In Crisis

  • On Charles’ death, brother became king.

  • James II (1685-1688) was pro-Catholic, which angered many.

  • When his young wife produced an heir, Parliament feared a renewed period of turmoil and removed king from power.

www.bbc.co.uk/.../monarchs_leaders/ images/james_2_full.jpg


The glorious revolution william and mary restore english monarchy

The Glorious RevolutionWilliam and Mary Restore English Monarchy

  • Parliament invited Mary, daughter of Charles I, and a Protestant, to jointly rule with her husband, William of Orange. (1689-1702)

  • Both agreed to follow Parliamentary laws and accepted English Bill of Rights.

  • England became the only limited monarchy in Europe. Parliament in control.

www.camelotintl.com/heritage/ rulers/images/willmary.gif


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