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OUTBREAK!. Portrait of an Epidemic. http://phil.cdc.gov/Phil/details.asp. THE BLACK DEATH. 25 million dead over 5 years One-third of Europe’s population “Victims often had lunch with their friends and dinner with their departed ancestors”. WHAT CAUSES DISEASE. Basically, 4 causes:

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Outbreak

OUTBREAK!

Portrait of an Epidemic

http://phil.cdc.gov/Phil/details.asp


The black death
THE BLACK DEATH

  • 25 million dead over 5 years

  • One-third of Europe’s population

  • “Victims often had lunch with their friends and dinner with their departed ancestors”


What causes disease
WHAT CAUSES DISEASE

  • Basically, 4 causes:

    • Bacteria

    • Viruses

    • Parasites

    • Prions

http://phil.cdc.gov/Phil/details.asp


Bacteria
BACTERIA

http://phil.cdc.gov/Phil/details.asp

  • Not all cause disease

  • Koch’s Postulates

    • Show the bacterium is present in every case of the disease

    • Isolate the bacterium from the infected individual and grow it outside the individual

    • Infect a healthy individual with the bacterium and have it produce the same symptoms

    • Recover the bacterium from the newly sick individual


E. coli

commtechlab.msu.edu

http://www.lbl.gov/

www.nasa.gov

www.geocities.com/avinash_abhyankar/

Salmonella


www.life.umd.edu/classroom/bsci424

Streptococcus

Causes strep throat

Round

phil.cdc.gov/Phil/

www.uiowa.edu/~cemrf/

Borrelia

Causes Lyme disease

Spiral-shaped

phil.cdc.gov/Phil/


phil.cdc.gov/Phil/details.asp

Bacillus anthracis


Viruses
Viruses

  • Not really alive?

  • Require host to reproduce

www.nsf.gov/od/lpa/


Influenza Virus

Avian Influenza

phil.cdc.gov/Phil/


www.cdc.gov/ncidod

www.aids-info.ch/bilder/schule_aids



Parasites
PARASITES

  • Protists

    • Malaria

    • African sleeping sickness

  • Other parasites

    • Hookworms

    • Wuchereria bancroftii

phil.cdc.gov/Phil/


Prions
PRIONS

  • Bits of self-replicating protein

  • Mad cow disease

  • Creutzfeldt-Jakob

  • Spongiform encephalitis

picasso.ucsf.edu/~ulyanov/Structures/prion.html

phil.cdc.gov/Phil


Investigating an outbreak center for disease control cdc
INVESTIGATING AN OUTBREAKCenter for Disease Control (CDC)

  • Prepare for field work

  • Establish the existence of an outbreak

  • Verify the diagnosis

  • Define and identify the cases

  • Describe and orient the data in terms of time, place, and person

  • Develop hypotheses

  • Evaluate hypotheses

  • Refine hypotheses and carry out additional studies

  • Implement control and prevention measures

  • Communicate findings


Investigating an outbreak center for disease control cdc1
INVESTIGATING AN OUTBREAKCenter for Disease Control (CDC)

  • Prepare for field work

  • Establish the existence of an outbreak

  • Verify the diagnosis

  • Define and identify the cases

  • Describe and orient the data in terms of time, place, and person

  • Develop hypotheses

  • Evaluate hypotheses

  • Refine hypotheses and carry out additional studies

  • Implement control and prevention measures

  • Communicate findings



Investigating an outbreak center for disease control cdc2
INVESTIGATING AN OUTBREAK for the area and time?Center for Disease Control (CDC)

  • Prepare for field work

  • Establish the existence of an outbreak

  • Verify the diagnosis

  • Define and identify the cases

  • Describe and orient the data in terms of time, place, and person

  • Develop hypotheses

  • Evaluate hypotheses

  • Refine hypotheses and carry out additional studies

  • Implement control and prevention measures

  • Communicate findings


INITIALS: for the area and time? CASE #:_______ SEX: ILL? (YES/NO)


Investigating an outbreak center for disease control cdc3
INVESTIGATING AN OUTBREAK for the area and time?Center for Disease Control (CDC)

  • Prepare for field work

  • Establish the existence of an outbreak

  • Verify the diagnosis

  • Define and identify the cases

  • Describe and orient the data in terms of time, place, and person

  • Develop hypotheses

  • Evaluate hypotheses

  • Refine hypotheses and carry out additional studies

  • Implement control and prevention measures

  • Communicate findings


SGOT  for the area and time?

Alt

SGOT

S*=Sclera;, N=Nausea; V=Vomiting; A=Anorexia; F=Fever; DU=Dark urine; J=Jaundice; HAIgm=Hepatitis AIgM antibody test


Investigating an outbreak center for disease control cdc4
INVESTIGATING AN OUTBREAK for the area and time?Center for Disease Control (CDC)

  • Prepare for field work

  • Establish the existence of an outbreak

  • Verify the diagnosis

  • Define and identify the cases

  • Describe and orient the data in terms of time, place, and person

  • Develop hypotheses

  • Evaluate hypotheses

  • Refine hypotheses and carry out additional studies

  • Implement control and prevention measures

  • Communicate findings


Legionellosis
LEGIONELLOSIS for the area and time?

  • What Is It? A type of pneumonia caused by the bacterium Legionella pneumophila.

  • Source: Contaminated water sources, such as showers, fountains, cooling systems, humidifiers, hot tubs and spas

  • Cause of Spread: Spray from contaminated sources

  • Normal Incidence: For Virginia, a 5-year average of 20 cases per year (about 2/month).

  • Historical Relevance: 1996 outbreak in the Lynchburg, VA, region. 23 confirmed cases with 2 deaths.

phil.cdc.gov/Phil


Investigating an outbreak center for disease control cdc5
INVESTIGATING AN OUTBREAK for the area and time?Center for Disease Control (CDC)

  • Prepare for field work

  • Establish the existence of an outbreak

  • Verify the diagnosis

  • Define and identify the cases

  • Describe and orient the data in terms of time, place, and person

  • Develop hypothesis

  • Evaluate hypothesis

  • Refine hypothesis and carry out additional studies

  • Implement control and prevention measures

  • Communicate findings


Calculate an odds ratio
CALCULATE AN ODDS RATIO for the area and time?

(a)(d)/(b)(c) = 5.8


Attack rates by items served at a church supper oswego new york april 1940
Attack Rates by Items Served at a Church Supper, for the area and time?Oswego, New York, April 1940


Investigating an outbreak center for disease control cdc6
INVESTIGATING AN OUTBREAK for the area and time?Center for Disease Control (CDC)

  • Prepare for field work

  • Establish the existence of an outbreak

  • Verify the diagnosis

  • Define and identify the cases

  • Describe and orient the data in terms of time, place, and person

  • Develop hypothesis

  • Evaluate hypothesis

  • Refine hypothesis

  • Implement control measures

  • Communicate findings


Outbreak at middlin high
OUTBREAK AT MIDDLIN HIGH for the area and time?

  • Students are getting sick …. Why?

  • 15 sick, so far

  • Began getting sick Sunday.

  • It’s now Wednesday… is the epidemic over?


Activity Summary Data Table for the area and time?


You are a cdc investigator
YOU ARE A CDC INVESTIGATOR for the area and time?

  • Your group is a CDC team

  • Your assignment is to investigate the illness, determine its source, and recommend action

  • You must follow the proper CDC steps as previously discussed


Treatments
TREATMENTS for the area and time?

  • Antibiotics

    • Only for bacteria

    • Resistance becoming a problem

  • Innoculations


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