The circulatory system
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The Circulatory System. The Heart, Blood Vessels, Blood Types. The Closed Circulatory System. Humans have a closed circulatory system , typical of all vertebrates, in which blood is confined to vessels and is distinct from the interstitial fluid.

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The Circulatory System

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The circulatory system

The Circulatory System

The Heart, Blood Vessels, Blood Types

The closed circulatory system

The Closed Circulatory System

  • Humans have a closed circulatory system, typical of all vertebrates, in which blood is confined to vessels and is distinct from the interstitial fluid.

    • The heart pumps blood into large vessels that branch into smaller ones leading into the organs.

    • Materials are exchanged by diffusion between the blood and the interstitial fluid bathing the cells.

The cardiovascular system

The Cardiovascular System

  • Three Major Elements – Heart, Blood Vessels, & Blood

    • 1. The Heart- cardiac muscle tissue

    • highly interconnected cells

    • four chambers

      • Right atrium

      • Right ventricle

      • Left atrium

      • Left ventricle

Pathway of the blood

Pathway of the blood

Superior Vena Cava

Right Atrium

Tricuspid Valve

Right Ventricle

Pulmonary Semilunar Valve


Pulmonary Vein

Bicuspid Valve

Left Ventricle

Aortic Semilunar Valve


To the bodies organs & cells



  • Pulmonary circuit

    • The blood pathway between the right side of the heart, to the lungs, and back to the left side of the heart.

  • Systemic circuit

    • The pathway between the left and right sides of the heart.

The cardiovascular system1

The Cardiovascular System

2. Blood Vessels -A network of tubes

  • Arteriesarterioles move away from the heart

    • Elastic Fibers

    • Circular Smooth Muscle

  • Capillaries – where gas exchange takes place.

    • One cell thick

    • Serves the Respiratory System

  • VeinsVenules moves towards the heart

    • Skeletal Muscles contract to force blood back from legs

    • One way values

    • When they break - varicose veins form

The cardiovascular system2

The Cardiovascular System

3. The Blood

  • Plasma

    Liquid portion of the blood. Contains clotting factors, hormones, antibodies, dissolved gases, nutrients and waste

The cardiovascular system3

The Cardiovascular System

  • The Blood

    B. Erythrocytes - Red Blood Cells

    • Carry hemoglobin and oxygen. Do not have a nucleus and live only about 120 days.

    • Can not repair themselves.

The cardiovascular system4

The Cardiovascular System

  • The Blood

    C. Leukocytes – White Blood cells

    • Fight infection and are formed in the bone marrow

    • Five types – neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, basophils, and monocytes.

The cardiovascular system5

The Cardiovascular System

The Blood

  • D. Thrombocytes – Platelets.

    • These are cell fragment that are formed in the bone marrow from magakaryocytes.

    • Clot Blood by sticking together – via protein fibers called fibrin.

Disorders of the circulatory system

Disorders of the Circulatory System

  • Anemia - lack of iron in the blood, low RBC count

  • Leukemia - white blood cells proliferate wildly, causing anemia

  • Hemophilia - bleeder’s disease, due to lack of fibrinogen in thrombocytes

  • Heart Murmur - abnormal heart beat, caused by valve problems

  • Heart attack - blood vessels around the heart become blocked with plaque, also called myocardial infarction

Unit 9 the heart

Unit 9 – The Heart

Cardiovascular System

The Heart

Functions of the heart

Functions of the Heart

  • Generating blood pressure

  • Routing blood

    • Heart separates pulmonary and systemic circulations

  • Ensuring one-way blood flow

    • Heart valves ensure one-way flow

  • Regulating blood supply

    • Changes in contraction rate and force match blood delivery to changing metabolic needs

Size shape location of the heart

Size, Shape, Location of the Heart

  • Size of a closed fist

  • Shape

    • Apex: Blunt rounded point of cone

    • Base: Flat part at opposite of end of cone

  • Located in thoracic cavity in mediastinum

Heart cross section

Heart Cross Section



Heart wall

Heart Wall

  • Three layers of tissue

    • Epicardium: This serous membrane of smooth outer surface of heart

    • Myocardium: Middle layer composed of cardiac muscle cell and responsibility for heart contracting

    • Endocardium: Smooth inner surface of heart chambers

Heart wall1

Heart Wall

External anatomy

External Anatomy

  • Four chambers

    • 2 atria

    • 2 ventricles

  • Auricles

  • Major veins

    • Superior vena cava

    • Pulmonary veins

  • Major arteries

    • Aorta

    • Pulmonary trunk

External anatomy1

External Anatomy

Coronary circulation

Coronary Circulation

Heart valves

Heart Valves

  • Atrioventricular

    • Tricuspid

    • Bicuspid or mitral

  • Semilunar

    • Aortic

    • Pulmonary

  • Prevent blood from flowing back

Heart valves1

Heart Valves

Function of the heart valves

Function of the Heart Valves

Blood flow through heart

Blood Flow Through Heart

Systemic and pulmonary circulation

Systemic and PulmonaryCirculation

Heart skeleton

Heart Skeleton

  • Consists of plate of fibrous connective tissue between atria and ventricles

  • Fibrous rings around valves to support

  • Serves as electrical insulation between atria and ventricles

  • Provides site for muscle attachment

Cardiac muscle

Cardiac Muscle

  • Elongated, branching cells containing 1-2 centrally located nuclei

  • Contains actin and myosin myofilaments

  • Intercalated disks: Specialized cell-cell contacts

  • Desmosomes hold cells together and gap junctions allow action potentials

  • Electrically, cardiac muscle behaves as single unit

Conducting system of heart

Conducting System of Heart

Electrical properties

Electrical Properties

  • Resting membrane potential (RMP) present

  • Action potentials

    • Rapid depolarization followed by rapid, partial early repolarization. Prolonged period of slow repolarization which is plateau phase and a rapid final repolarization phase

    • Voltage-gated channels

Action potentials in skeletal and cardiac muscle

Action Potentials inSkeletal and Cardiac Muscle

Sa node action potential

SA Node Action Potential

Refractory period

Refractory Period

  • Absolute: Cardiac muscle cell completely insensitive to further stimulation

  • Relative: Cell exhibits reduced sensitivity to additional stimulation

  • Long refractory period prevents tetanic contractions



  • Action potentials through myocardium during cardiac cycle produces electric currents than can be measured

  • Pattern

    • P wave

      • Atria depolarization

    • QRS complex

      • Ventricle depolarization

      • Atria repolarization

    • T wave:

      • Ventricle repolarization

Cardiac arrhythmias

Cardiac Arrhythmias

  • Tachycardia: Heart rate in excess of 100bpm

  • Bradycardia: Heart rate less than 60 bpm

  • Sinus arrhythmia: Heart rate varies 5% during respiratory cycle and up to 30% during deep respiration

  • Premature atrial contractions: Occasional shortened intervals between one contraction and succeeding, frequently occurs in healthy people

Alterations in electrocardiogram

Alterations in Electrocardiogram

Cardiac cycle

Cardiac Cycle

  • Heart is two pumps that work together, right and left half

  • Repetitive contraction (systole) and relaxation (diastole) of heart chambers

  • Blood moves through circulatory system from areas of higher to lower pressure.

    • Contraction of heart produces the pressure

Cardiac cycle1

Cardiac Cycle

Events during cardiac cycle

Events during Cardiac Cycle

Heart sounds

Heart Sounds

  • First heart sound or “lubb”

    • Atrioventricular valves and surrounding fluid vibrations as valves close at beginning of ventricular systole

  • Second heart sound or “dupp”

    • Results from closure of aortic and pulmonary semilunar valves at beginning of ventricular diastole, lasts longer

  • Third heart sound (occasional)

    • Caused by turbulent blood flow into ventricles and detected near end of first one-third of diastole

Location of heart valves

Location of Heart Valves

Mean arterial pressure map

Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP)

  • Average blood pressure in aorta

  • MAP=CO x PR

    • CO is amount of blood pumped by heart per minute

      • CO=SV x HR

        • SV: Stroke volume of blood pumped during each heart beat

        • HR: Heart rate or number of times heart beats per minute

      • Cardiac reserve: Difference between CO at rest and maximum CO

    • PR is total resistance against which blood must be pumped

Factors affecting map

Factors Affecting MAP

Regulation of the heart

Regulation of the Heart

  • Intrinsic regulation: Results from normal functional characteristics, not on neural or hormonal regulation

    • Starling’s law of the heart

  • Extrinsic regulation: Involves neural and hormonal control

    • Parasympathetic stimulation

      • Supplied by vagus nerve, decreases heart rate, acetylcholine secreted

    • Sympathetic stimulation

      • Supplied by cardiac nerves, increases heart rate and force of contraction, epinephrine and norepinephrine released

Heart homeostasis

Heart Homeostasis

  • Effect of blood pressure

    • Baroreceptors monitor blood pressure

  • Effect of pH, carbon dioxide, oxygen

    • Chemoreceptors monitor

  • Effect of extracellular ion concentration

    • Increase or decrease in extracellular K+ decreases heart rate

  • Effect of body temperature

    • Heart rate increases when body temperature increases, heart rate decreases when body temperature decreases

Baroreceptor and chemoreceptor reflexes

Baroreceptor and ChemoreceptorReflexes

Baroreceptor reflex

Baroreceptor Reflex

Chemoreceptor reflex ph

Chemoreceptor Reflex-pH

Effects of aging on the heart

Effects of Aging on the Heart

  • Gradual changes in heart function, minor under resting condition, more significant during exercise

  • Hypertrophy of left ventricle

  • Maximum heart rate decreases

  • Increased tendency for valves to function abnormally and arrhythmias to occur

  • Increased oxygen consumption required to pump same amount of blood

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