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CLASH at the Frontier Fields. Dan Coe, Adi Zitrin , Julian Merten. Abell 1689 55 orbits ACS Blakeslee, Alamo-Martinez. CLASH has revealed two robust candidates in the first 500 Myr. MACS1149-JD z ~ 9.6 (490 Myr ) Wei Zheng et al. (2012) Nature 489, 406.

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Clash at the frontier fields

CLASH at the Frontier Fields

Dan Coe, AdiZitrin, Julian Merten

Abell 1689

55 orbits ACS

Blakeslee, Alamo-Martinez

CLASH at the Frontier Fields


Clash has revealed two robust candidates in the first 500 myr
CLASH has revealed two robust candidates in the first 500 Myr

MACS1149-JDz ~ 9.6 (490 Myr)Wei Zheng et al. (2012)Nature 489, 406

MACS0647-JDz ~ 10.8 (420 Myr)Dan Coe et al. (2013)ApJ 762, 32

in 2 / 5 “high-magnification” CLASH clusters

CLASH at the Frontier Fields


Did galaxies bulid up dramatically at z ~ 10?

time

TODAY (13.7)

BIG BANG

then run out of gas

galaxies build up

Only one z~10 candidate found where six were expected

(Bouwens11)

dramaticevolution?

UDF 2009

adapted from Bouwens12

see also Oesch12,13

CLASH at the Frontier Fields


CLASH discoveries are consistent with expectations which include enough faint galaxies to reionize the universe

time

TODAY (13.7)

BIG BANG

CLASH

joint

gradual

dramatic

adapted from Coe et al. 2013

CLASH at the Frontier Fields


Field searches still suggest z 10 deficit but more data are required
Field searches still suggest z ~ 10 deficit, but more data are required

Oesch13

M* evolution

Φ* evolution

CLASH at the Frontier Fields


Z 10 luminosity function still very uncertain
z ~ 10 luminosity function are requiredstill very uncertain

Oesch13

CLASH at the Frontier Fields


Large extrapolations required to estimate faint galaxy contribution to reionization
Large extrapolations required to estimate are requiredfaint galaxy contribution to reionization

MUV -10

(smallest

galaxies?)

z ~ 8 luminosityfunction

lensing

(conservative:

10x magnif.)

JWST+

lensing

faint end slope important

  • other uncertainties:

  • escape fraction

  • clumping factor

field data

(Bradley12)

UDF

ERS

BoRG

Galaxy Number Density

CLASH at the Frontier Fields


A are requireddeeper HST WFC3/IR cluster survey

white paper led by Dan Coe & Wei Zhengsubmitted to the Hubble Deep Fields Initiativescience working group

advising Matt Mountain on his use of Director’s Discretionary time

James Bullock (chair)

Mark Dickinson

Steven Finkelstein

Adriano Fontana

Ann HornschemeierCardiff

Jennifer Lotz

PriyaNatarajan

Alexandra Pope

Brant Robertson

Brian Siana

Jason Tumlinson

Michael Wood-Vasey

resulting in the Frontier Fields

CLASH at the Frontier Fields


The frontier fields

Our deepest views of galaxies to date are required

(intrinsic AB mag > 31)

840 HST orbits (director’s discretionary)Fall 2013 – Fall 2016

Matt MountainJen Lotz

The Frontier Fields

4 / 6 are CLASH clusters

AbellS1063

(RXJ2248-4431)

(1)

(3)

Abell 2744

Pandora’s Cluster

MACS0717+37

Subject to director’s approval

(5)

dark matter

gas

MACS0416-24

(2)

(4)

MACS1149+22

Abell370

(6)

http://www.stsci.edu/hst/campaigns/frontier-fields/

CLASH at the Frontier Fields


Frontier fields should yield 35 120 z 8 5 galaxies
Frontier Fields should yield ~35 – 120 z > 8.5 galaxies are required

distinguishing between evolution scenarios

gradual evolution

dramatic evolution

5s

5s

CLASH 5s

CLASH 5s

CLASH at the Frontier Fields


Hubble will observe both lensed and blank fields simultaneously in parallel

Frontier Fields are required

Hubble will observe both lensed and “blank” fields simultaneously in parallel

WFC3/IR

ACS

“blank” field

6’

cluster core

h

CLASH at the Frontier Fields


Swap cameras 6 months later earlier 70 orbits acs 70 orbits wfc3 ir o n every field

Frontier Fields are required

Swap cameras 6 months later / earlier70 orbits ACS + 70 orbits WFC3/IR* on every field

* 10 times deeper than any previous lensed field,

including CLASH

ACS

WFC3/IR

“blank” field

6’

cluster core

h

CLASH at the Frontier Fields


140 orbits per field cluster blank
140 orbits are requiredper field (cluster / “blank”)

70 orbitsACS

10x deeper thandeepest clusterIR observations

to date (7 orbits)

70 orbitsWFC3/IR

Brian

Siana’sGO

program

CLASH at the Frontier Fields


Ff hst cycle 21 programs
FF HST Cycle 21 programs are required

http://blogs.stsci.edu/hstff/

CLASH at the Frontier Fields


Ff observations
FF observations are required

table to be updated…

http://blogs.stsci.edu/hstff/

CLASH at the Frontier Fields


Frontier fields schedule

Spitzer observations (50 hours / channel) are required

Frontier Fields schedule

WFC3/IR observations of A2744 begin in one month (late October)

CLASH at the Frontier Fields


http://bit.ly/ are required168Veql -- Steve Rodney

CLASH at the Frontier Fields


Lens models for the community
Lens models for the community are required

CLASH at the Frontier Fields



Frontier Fields submitted lens models are required

CATS

Abell 2744

magnification maps

Sharon

Zitrin LTM

Zitrin NFW

Merten (wide field)

Bradac

Williams

CLASH at the Frontier Fields


Frontier Fields submitted lens models are required

CATS

Abell 2744

magnification maps

Sharon

Zitrin LTM

Zitrin NFW

Merten (wide field)

Bradac

Williams

CLASH at the Frontier Fields


Quantifying magnification uncertainties

True are required(Meneghetti)

Quantifying magnification uncertainties

Log

(result / true)

MAX 1 xy

Lenstool(Carrasco)

Lenstool(Carrasco)

Meneghetti – Skylens simulated image

CLASH at the Frontier Fields


FF lens modelers will also model 3 simulated clusters are required

CLASH at the Frontier Fields


The Frontier Fields will also enable are requiredhigh-resolution cluster mass maps

Mass resolution ~ average SL image separation

Highest resolution (~25 kpc) cluster mass map to date

Abell 1689 – Coe et al. (2010)

CLASH at the Frontier Fields


The Frontier Fields will also enable are requiredhigh-resolution cluster mass maps

  • subhalo mass function

  • quantify degree to which light traces mass

  • mass-to-light ratios; evidence for tidal stripping

  • inform “abundance matching” models

  • strong lensing tomography? (multiple lens planes)

Highest resolution (~25 kpc) cluster mass map to date

Abell 1689 – Coe et al. (2010)

CLASH at the Frontier Fields


The next frontiers of gravitational lensing focus on cluster strong lensing
The Next Frontiers of Gravitational Lensing are requiredfocus on cluster strong lensing

  • High-redshift galaxies

    • magnification uncertainties

  • Calibrating mass observables + 3-D analysis

    • lensing, X-ray, SZ, dynamics

  • High-resolution dark matter maps

  • Cosmological constraints

Dan Coe - STScI Cluster Lensing Workshop


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